Authors List

  • Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie is the best-selling author of all time. She wrote 66 crime novels and story collections, fourteen plays, and six novels under a pseudonym in Romance. Her books have sold over a billion copies in the English language and a billion in translation. According to Index Translationum, she remains the most-translated individual author, having been translated into at least 103 languages. She is the creator of two of the most enduring figures in crime literature-Hercule Poirot and Miss Jane Marple-and author of The Mousetrap, the longest-running play in the history of modern theatre. Agatha Mary Clarissa Miller was born in Torquay, Devon, England, U.K., as the youngest of three. The Millers had two other children: Margaret Frary Miller (1879–1950), called Madge, who was eleven years Agatha's senior, and Louis Montant Miller (1880–1929), called Monty, ten years older than Agatha. Before marrying and starting a family in London, she had served in a Devon hospital during the First World War, tending to troops coming back from the trenches. During the First World War, she worked at a hospital as a nurse; later working at a hospital pharmacy, a job that influenced her work, as many of the murders in her books are carried out with poison. During the Second World War, she worked as a pharmacy assistant at University College Hospital, London, acquiring a good knowledge of poisons which feature in many of her novels. Her first novel, The Mysterious Affair at Styles, came out in 1920. During her first marriage, Agatha published six novels, a collection of short stories, and a number of short stories in magazines. In late 1926, Agatha's husband, Archie, revealed that he was in love with another woman, Nancy Neele, and wanted a divorce. On 8 December 1926 the couple quarreled, and Archie Christie left their house, Styles, in Sunningdale, Berkshire, to spend the weekend with his mistress at Godalming, Surrey. That same evening Agatha disappeared from her home, leaving behind a letter for her secretary saying that she was going to Yorkshire. Her disappearance caused an outcry from the public, many of whom were admirers of her novels. Despite a massive manhunt, she was not found for eleven days. In 1930, Christie married archaeologist Max Mallowan (Sir Max from 1968) after joining him in an archaeological dig. Their marriage was especially happy in the early years and remained so until Christie's death in 1976. Christie frequently used familiar settings for her stories. Christie's travels with Mallowan contributed background to several of her novels set in the Middle East. Other novels (such as And Then There Were None) were set in and around Torquay, where she was born. Christie's 1934 novel Murder on the Orient Express was written in the Hotel Pera Palace in Istanbul, Turkey, the southern terminus of the railway. The hotel maintains Christie's room as a memorial to the author. The Greenway Estate in Devon, acquired by the couple as a summer residence in 1938, is now in the care of the National Trust. Christie often stayed at Abney Hall in Cheshire, which was owned by her brother-in-law, James Watts. She based at least two of her stories on the hall: the short story The Adventure of the Christmas Pudding, and the novel After the Funeral. Abney Hall became Agatha's greatest inspiration for country-house life, with all the servants and grandeur which have been woven into her plots. To honour her many literary works, she was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1956 New Year Honours. The next year, she became the President of the Detection Club.

  • Albert Camus (1913-1960) was a representative of non-metropolitan French literature. His origin in Algeria and his experiences there in the thirties were dominating influences in his thought and work. Of semi-proletarian parents, early attached to intellectual circles of strongly revolutionary tendencies, with a deep interest in philosophy (only chance prevented him from pursuing a university career in that field), he came to France at the age of twenty-five. The man and the times met: Camus joined the resistance movement during the occupation and after the liberation was a columnist for the newspaper Combat. But his journalistic activities had been chiefly a response to the demands of the time; in 1947 Camus retired from political journalism and, besides writing his fiction and essays, was very active in the theatre as producer and playwright (e.g., Caligula, 1944). He also adapted plays by Calderon, Lope de Vega, Dino Buzzati, and Faulkner's Requiem for a Nun. His love for the theatre may be traced back to his membership in L'Equipe, an Algerian theatre group, whose "collective creation" Révolte dans les Asturies (1934) was banned for political reasons. The essay Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus), 1942, expounds Camus's notion of the absurd and of its acceptance with "the total absence of hope, which has nothing to do with despair, a continual refusal, which must not be confused with renouncement - and a conscious dissatisfaction". Meursault, central character of L'Étranger (The Stranger), 1942, illustrates much of this essay: man as the nauseated victim of the absurd orthodoxy of habit, later - when the young killer faces execution - tempted by despair, hope, and salvation. Dr. Rieux of La Peste (The Plague), 1947, who tirelessly attends the plague-stricken citizens of Oran, enacts the revolt against a world of the absurd and of injustice, and confirms Camus's words: "We refuse to despair of mankind. Without having the unreasonable ambition to save men, we still want to serve them". Other well-known works of Camus are La Chute (The Fall), 1956, and L'Exil et le royaume (Exile and the Kingdom), 1957. His austere search for moral order found its aesthetic correlative in the classicism of his art. He was a stylist of great purity and intense concentration and rationality. Camus was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1959. Camus died on 4 January 1960 at the age of 46, in a car accident near Sens, in Le Grand Fossard in the small town of Villeblevin.

  • برام ستوكر: روائي وكاتب قصة قصيرة أيرلندي، اشتهر بسبب روايته «دراكولا». وُلد ستوكر في دبلن بأيرلندا عامَ ١٨٤٧م، وتعلم في مدرسة خاصة وحصل على البكالوريوس في الرياضيات مع مرتبة الشرف. تعاون مع بعض المجلات كناقد مسرحي بدون أجر. دفعه شغفه بالمسرح والتمثيل لأن يصبح مديرًا ناجحًا لأحد المسارح، واستمر في وظيفته تلك مدة سبعة وعشرين عامًا. ربطته صداقة بمجموعة أدباء منهم آرثر كونان دويل وألفريد لورد تينيسون ومارك توين وأوسكار وايلد. انتهى من كتابة روايته «دراكولا» عام ١٨٩٧م وحققت له شهرة لم يكن يحلم بها. تُوفِّي عامَ ١٩١٢م.

  • Charles Dickens was one of the most famous and successful writers in 19th-century England. Along with 14 novels, many of them rich in topical allusion, he produced a body of work as reporter, essayist, correspondent, and editor that constitutes a lifelong account of the facts of Victorian life as he knew them. Dickens was a lover of facts in his work as a reporter, but his nonfiction work is anything but a mere collection of data. In his reporting and commentary, Dickens is often an outraged reformer, uncompromising in his attacks on privileged interests. In the early sketches, he is a writer trying to achieve a synthesis of art and social criticism. The surviving letters, some 14,500 of which the editors of the ongoing Pilgrim Edition have collected, reveal a man of astonishing energies, who attempted to impose an artist’s vision of order on every aspect of his life and work. In the late essays, Dickens emerges as a restless, poetic wanderer who masterfully blends observation, autobiography, and allegory. Much of this prose is valuable as a window on the novelist’s attitudes and preoccupations, but most of it stands on its own, the work of an acute observer and dedicated craftsman. The experiences that nourished this prodigious talent began in Portsmouth, where Dickens was born on February 7, 1812 to John and Elizabeth Barrow Dickens. John Dickens was a clerk in the naval pay office, a job that took him and his family to London in 1814, to Chatham in 1817, and back to London in 1822. In Chatham the young Charles Dickens spent the happiest years of his childhood. He loved the sights and sounds of the busy shipbuilding center, and both his parents encouraged his early devotion to such 18th-century prose masters as Henry Fielding, Oliver Goldsmith, and Tobias Smollett. But his father’s inability to live within his means, coupled with the growth of the Dickens household (Charles Dickens had four brothers and sisters by 1822), brought an early end to this happiness that coincided with the family’s second move to London. Just two days past his 12th birthday, Dickens was sent to work in a warehouse pasting labels on shoe-blacking pots to supplement the family income; 11 days later his father was arrested for debt and taken to the Marshalsea debtor’s prison. The double blow of his family’s fall from fortune and his own banishment into drudgery and humiliation constituted an abrupt loss of innocence whose ache never fully subsided. Although a bequest freed his father from the Marshalsea after three months, and Dickens’s own warehouse tenure lasted only four, the sense of insecurity and injustice these events instilled lasted a lifetime. At the same time, the experience benefited the future writer, broadening his scope, deepening his insight, and contributing to the astonishing energy and resolve with which he subsequently pursued his vocation. Less than a month after his father removed him from the blacking warehouse, Dickens was enrolled as a day student at the Wellington House Academy in London. Here, between the ages of 12 and 15, he was already trying his hand at the kind of writing that would launch him on his professional career. He submitted what was called “penny-a-line stuff” to his father’s employer, the British Press: information about fires, accidents, or police reports missed by the regular reporters. Several years later, constrained by his work as a clerk in a law office, he set himself the difficult task of mastering shorthand so as to return to journalism in earnest. In 1828, during his 16th year, he became a freelance reporter in the London law courts. For several years he alternated reporting, exploring the London streets, and reading avidly at the British Museum. Already devoted to the essays of Joseph Addison, Oliver Goldsmith, and Samuel Johnson, he now read the major 19th-century essayists: Leigh Hunt, William Hazlitt, Charles LambWalter Savage Landor, and Thomas DeQuincey. In his 20th year, Dickens secured a job as a parliamentary reporter for the Mirror of Parliament, founded by his uncle John Henry Barrow. He worked there from 1832 to 1834. The reputation he made for himself would be the envy of any aspiring journalist. A contemporary of Dickens, James Grant of the Morning Advertiser, claimed that Dickens “occupied the very highest rank, not merely for accuracy in reporting, but for marvelous quickness in transcript.” Despite his youth, he quickly won the respect of his older colleagues. “There never was such a shorthand writer!” declared one of them. Dickens’s observations of parliament during and after the heady days of the Reform Bill debates constituted the liberal education neither he nor his parents could afford to finance. It also committed him to reform while making him suspicious of many reformers. The only problem with the Mirror of Parliament was that it did not pay its staff members when parliament was not in session, which forced Dickens back to free-lance court reporting. Thus when the liberal daily newspaper the Morning Chronicle was reorganized and expanded, Dickens jumped at the chance of becoming one of its regular staff members. His thoroughness and speed helped the Chronicle provide serious competition to its conservative rival the Times. The ambition that drove Dickens during these apprenticeship years, he later admitted to his friend and biographer John Forster, “excluded every other idea from my mind for four years, at a time of life when four years are equal to four times four.” He added that he “went at it with a determination to overcome all difficulties, which fairly lifted me up into that newspaper life, and floated me away over a hundred men’s heads.” Dickens’s reputation as a reporter was soon eclipsed, however, by his growing fame as “Boz,” the name under which he wrote a series of tales and sketches published in the Monthly MagazineBell’s Weekly Magazine, the Morning Chronicle, the Evening Chronicle, and Bell’s Life in London and Sporting Chronicle. He later collected these pieces in two hardcover volumes titled Sketches by Boz (1836), adding additional material and revising the originals. Many of the sketches are in fact essays, possessing a colloquial immediacy that vividly captures the lower- and middle-class street life he observed firsthand. In them Dickens introduced many of the scenes and much of the subject matter that later appeared in his fiction. For example, the sketch “Gin-Shops,” besides demonstrating Dickens’s knowledge of the lower reaches of Victorian society, is an early instance of the reformer’s anger at those who condemn the symptoms of poverty without addressing its causes: “Gin-drinking is a great vice in England, but wretchedness and dirt are greater; and until you improve the homes of the poor, or persuade a half-famished wretch not to seek relief in the temporary oblivion of his own misery, with the pittance which, divided among his family, would furnish a morsel of bread for each, gin-shops will increase in number and splendor.” When Sketches by Boz was published contemporary reviewers were impressed. The critic for the Morning Post said that the “graphic descriptions of ‘Boz’ invest all he describes with amazing fidelity.” The Sunday Herald hailed the collected sketches as “inimitably accurate.” Many years later, during a banquet in his honor given by the New York press on April 18, 1868, Dickens attributed the verisimilitude of his writing to “the wholesome training of severe newspaper work.” Recently, increased attention has been paid to the importance of the Sketches by Boz. Of the many reassessments the best is Duane DeVries’s Dickens’s Apprentice Years: The Making of a Novelist (1976), which shows how these short pieces allowed Dickens to develop the technical skill necessary to his later achievements. The origins of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1836-1837), later known simply as The Pickwick Papers, suggest that Dickens the novelist is often difficult to separate from Dickens the journalist. The success of Sketches by Boz brought Dickens to the attention of Edward Chapman and William Hall, booksellers and publishers of periodicals who had recently begun producing books. They proposed that Dickens provide a series of Boz-like sketches to accompany the illustrations of Robert Seymour, one of England’s leading comic artists. Dickens would write and edit 20 monthly installments to be sold for one shilling apiece. As reported by biographer Edgar Johnson, Dickens’s friends warned him that the shilling number was a “low, cheap form of publication” that would prevent him from rising to the rank of respectable writer, but to no avail. Dickens began writing a few days after his 24th birthday, and before the end of March 1836, he had written 24,000 words, enough for the first two installments. With the 29 pounds he received in payment Dickens was able to marry Catherine Hogarth (1815-1879) on April 2, leaving on a short honeymoon before the first installment was published. The couple’s first child, Charles, was born nine months later; over the next 15 years came nine more children, several named after writers for whom Dickens had a special affinity: Mary, Kate, Walter LandorAlfred Tennyson, Sydney Smith Haldemand, Henry Fielding, Dora Annie, and Edward Bulwer-Lytton. The first number of The Pickwick Papers sold only 400 copies, but when the last number was printed in October 1837 the run was 40,000. In his preface to the first cheap edition of The Pickwick Papers, Dickens ironically recalled the warning of his friends, concluding: “how right my friends turned out to be, everybody now knows.” The phenomenal success that resulted from this venture created an entirely new approach to the publication of novels. Previously, serial publication of literature was restricted to cheap reprints of classics or ephemeral nonfiction turned out by poorly paid hack writers. Readers bought or checked out novels in three-volume hardback editions. Dickens’s gamble wedded the serial appeal of journalism to the emotional engagement of fiction. All of his subsequent novels were published in installments, and many other novelists adopted this mode. The Pickwick Papers turned Dickens from an obscure reporter into a celebrity, but it did not diminish his journalistic energy. While writing The Pickwick Papers, in fact, he found that he could occasionally blend his journalism into his fiction. In May, with only two installments of The Pickwick Papers in print, Dickens, using the pseudonym Timothy Sparks, wrote a pamphlet fiercely attacking a bill that would prohibit all work and recreation on Sundays. The pamphlet, Sunday Under Three Heads: As It Is; As Sabbath Bills Would Make It; As It Might Be Made, argued that without this day of recreation and enjoyment, increasing numbers of poor would resort to the gin shops, just the result that “your saintly law-givers” are supposedly trying to avoid as they “lift up their hands to heaven, and exclaim for a law which shall convert the day intended for rest and cheerfulness, into one of universal gloom, bigotry, and persecution.” In the pamphlet Dickens created a Nonconformist preacher whose hypocrisy anticipates that of the red-nosed minister Stiggins, who appeared in the December number of The Pickwick Papers. And on June 22, on assignment for the Morning Chronicle, Dickens attended a divorce case in which Lord Melbourne was accused of adultery with the wife of the Hon. George Norton; some of this material found its way into the farcical trial of Bardell vs. Pickwick, which appeared in the July installment. It is likely that the monthly praise Dickens received as Pickwick’s adventures unfolded convinced him of the advantages of maintaining regular contact with his readers, as journalism allowed him to do. He did sever his connection with the Morning Chronicle in November 1836, but he continued to submit articles and letters to newspapers for the remainder of his life. He even agreed to become founding editor of a new radical paper, the Daily News, in January 1846, but he was not suited for the role of daily-newspaper editor, and his tenure lasted a short 17 issues. His editorial ambitions, however, were not confined to newspapers. January 1837 saw publication of the first issue of Bentley’s Miscellany, a monthly collection of fiction, biographical notes, verses, and humor edited by Dickens and published by Richard Bentley. Oliver Twist, the first of Dickens’s novels to be published as part of a magazine, was serialized in the Miscellany beginning with the second issue and published in three volumes by Bentley in 1838. The novel was partly inspired by Dickens’s hatred of the New Poor Law, which he heard debated in Parliament and which he viewed as a subordination of the needs of the poor to institutional control and efficiency. Oliver Twist was a huge success for both Dickens and Bentley, but financial and editorial disputes between the two men became increasingly bitter. In a move that foreshadowed subsequent dealings with his publishers, Dickens resigned his position at the magazine in February 1839 in a disagreement over editorial control. At the end of an otherwise judicious and moderate farewell address published in the March issue, Dickens told his readers that the magazine had “always been literally 'Bentley’s Miscellany,' and never mine.” Seeking greater editorial autonomy, Dickens arranged with Chapman and Hall to bring out a new weekly periodical, and Master Humphry’s Clock was born on April 4, 1840. Conceived in the spirit of Addison’s Spectator papers, Master Humphry’s Clock began as a blend of sketches, essays, and tales but quickly faltered when readers discovered there was no engrossing novel by Dickens to hold their interest. Before the decline Dickens had discussed with Forster a short pathetic tale he would write for the magazine; when trouble arose he responded with a characteristic adaptability, turning the tale into a novel. Thus was The Old Curiosity Shop produced, one of many cases of Dickens’s journalism fostering his fiction. The Old Curiosity Shop brought the circulation of Master Humphry’s Clock up to 100,000, and Chapman and Hall published the novel in two volumes in 1841. But after Barnaby Rudge (1 volume, 1841) had also appeared in its pages, Dickens arranged with Chapman and Hall to discontinue the magazine in November 1841 and return to publishing his novels in monthly parts. For Dickens, editing (or “conducting” as he later described it) a magazine was a way of maintaining close contact with his audience, something he learned to value during the publication of The Pickwick Papers. When he decided to make his first trip to America, he used the preface to Master Humphry’s Clock to announce his impending separation from his readers: “I have decided, in January next, to pay a visit to America. The pleasure I anticipate from this realization of a wish I have long entertained … is subdued by the reflection that it must separate us for a longer time than other circumstances would have rendered necessary.” Dickens and his wife left England on January 4, 1842, arriving in Boston on January 22 and returning on June 7. Their itinerary was ambitious, taking them from the eastern seaboard to the southern slave states and west to St. Louis, then back via Ohio, Toronto, Montreal, and New York by way of Lake Champlain. The process whereby Dickens’s infatuation with most things American turned to disillusionment is chronicled in a series of increasingly caustic letters he wrote home to friends and in books seven through 13 of The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (published 1842-1844, in 20 parts). In much of American Notes for General Circulation, published in two volumes in October 1842, Dickens replaces this vituperation with shrewd journalistic analyses of American institutions in light of their English counterparts: asylums, factories, prisons. His accounts of New York’s Tombs prison and the Philadelphia penitentiary are especially powerful, recalling “A Visit to Newgate” in Sketches by Boz. In his account of touring the Tombs, Dickens applies the mordant wit of the satirist to his description of an exchange he had with a prison guard. The guard had explained that the boy in one cramped cell had been locked up for “safe keeping” because he was a witness in the upcoming trial of his father. Dickens asked if this was not hard treatment for the witness, and the guard replied: “Well, it ain’t a very rowdy life, and that’s a fact!” Despite the generally moderate tone of American Notes for General Circulation, certain U.S. papers reacted violently. The New York Herald reviewer called Dickens “that famous penny-a-liner,” with “the most coarse, vulgar, imprudent, and superficial” mind, whose view of America was that of “a narrow-minded, conceited cockney.” English readers were generally unimpressed and longed for another novel. 20th-century opinion ranges from high praise for the book’s social criticism to disappointment at its lack of “personality” in comparison with Dickens’s other travel book, Pictures from Italy (1846). A richly detailed account of the response to American Notes for General Circulation is provided in Michael Slater’s introduction to Dickens on America and the Americans, a collection that attests to the continuing appeal of Dickens’s nonfiction. Unlike the two travel books, most of Dickens’s journalism in the 1840s was strident and outspoken. On June 25, 1842 a fiery letter from Dickens appeared in the Morning Chronicle supporting Lord Ashley’s Bill to bar women and girls from working in the mines. On July 7 he sent a circular letter that continued his criticisms of American publishers who pirated English books. In June 1843 he lashed out against the High Church movement in an unsigned piece for the Examiner, where some of his best reporting appeared in the late 1840s, writing to its editor Albany Fonblanque about how misguided it was “to talk in these times of most untimely ignorance among the people, about what Priests shall wear and whither they shall turn when they say their prayers!” Dickens began writing A Child’s History of England at about this time, he told a friend, so his son Charley would not “get hold of any conservative or High Church notions.” A Child’s History of England, published in Household Words beginning in 1851 and in three volumes from 1852 to 1854, is an ill-informed and often astonishingly slapdash production, but even here Dickens’s radical opinions give rise to powerful imagery, as when he refers to Henry VIII as “a blot of grease and blood upon the History of England.” In March 1846 he wrote a long and carefully reasoned attack on capital punishment for the Daily News, the editorship of which he had recently resigned. This attack was echoed in a November 13, 1849 letter to the Times on the evening of a public hanging. “I do not believe that any community can prosper where such a scene of horror and demoralisation as was enacted this morning outside Horsemonger Lane Gaol is presented at the very doors of good citizens, and is passed by unknown and forgotten.” Another campaign for reform had begun on January 20, 1849, with the appearance of the first of Dickens’s four articles for the Examiner on the Tooting scandal, involving the deaths of 150 children at a childfarm outside of London. The article ends with a scathing indictment in the form of a characteristic peroration: “The cholera, or some unusually malignant form of typhus assimilating itself to that disease, broke out in Mr. Drouet’s farm for children, because it was brutally conducted, vilely kept, preposterously inspected, dishonestly defended, a disgrace to a Christian community, and a stain upon a civilized land.” Following the failed Daily News experiment, Dickens’s next major journalistic project was Household Words. Having broken with Chapman and Hall over their response to the poor sales of Martin Chuzzlewit, Dickens contracted with his new publishers, William Bradbury and Frederick Evans, to bring out the first issue of the two penny weekly on 30 March 1850. This time Dickens was half-owner, assuring him editorial control, and for eight years he directed Household Words with an unerring sense of what would succeed. He also devoted extraordinary energies to every aspect of the magazine’s production, from soliciting manuscripts to directing revisions to acting as a sort of silent collaborator on most of the articles. As Harry Stone has shown in his introduction to Dickens’s Uncollected Writings from Household Words (1968), Dickens made certain that every contribution to the magazine was consistent with his views. Central to these views was a belief in the restorative power of the imagination. In “A Preliminary Word” to the first issue of the magazine, Dickens proclaimed that Household Words would teach “the hardest workers at this whirling wheel of toil, that their lot is not necessarily a moody, brutal fact, excluded from the sympathies and graces of imagination.” He added that the magazine would show that “in all familiar things, even in those which are repellent on the surface, there is Romance enough, if we will find it out.” This clothing of fact in the fabric of fancy is evident in “Valentine’s Day at the Post Office,” an article that details the workings of London’s central postal office. W.H. Wills wrote the bulk of the article, but Dickens’s improving hand is evident in many sections, including the following passage, describing the scene as the deadline for posting newspapers approaches: “By degrees it began to rain hard; by fast degrees the storm came on harder and harder, until it blew, rained, hailed, snowed, newspapers. A fountain of newspapers played in at the window. Water-spouts of newspapers broke from enormous sacks, and engulphed the men inside.” Dickens published a great many of this kind of essay in Household Words (he called them “process” articles), on subjects ranging from the production of plate glass to the editing and printing of Household Words itself. He also made room for a series of major novels, from Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell’s North and South to his own Hard Times. In addition, the magazine often became the voice of Dickens the radical moralist. The January 4 1851 issue, for instance, contained an article that presented a very different image of England from that promoted by the Great Exhibition of that year. Titled “The Last Words of the Old Year,” the article catalogued the legacy of 1850: dispossessed and hungry children, desperate farmers, crowded slums, sewers that spread disease throughout the country. He “bequeathed” to the new year “a vast inheritance of degradation and neglect in England, a general mismanagement of all public expenditure, revenues and property.” To urge reform of these “brutal” facts, Dickens regularly employed Household Words to campaign for improvements in sanitation, slum housing, popular education, and workplace safety, and for the right workingmen to form trade unions. This blend of information, art, and radical polemic produced a lively hybrid, something like a cross between the New Yorker and the Nation but with a broader appeal than either. On April 30, 1859 Dickens brought out the first issue of All the Year Round, a magazine that had its origins in a feud with Bradbury and Evans. Dickens had begun to make reference to his marital troubles in several letters of the early 1850s; in April 1857 he met the actress Ellen Ternan, who was 27 years his junior. His infatuation with Ellen made him determined to establish Catherine in a separate household, a move that was accompanied by ill-conceived public announcements, including a front-page address to the readers of the June 12, 1858 issue of Household Words. Bradbury and Evans disapproved of this publicity and were critical of the stories that were circulating about Dickens’s affair with Ternan. Dickens’s anger over their response, coupled with his desire for total control over publication, drove him to sever his relations with the publishers, begin All the Year Round, and buy Household Words in order to close it down. The last issue of Household Words was published on May 28, 1859. Dickens was the publisher and editor of All the Year Round until his death, and in most ways it was a continuation of the successful formula of its predecessor. But Dickens did break with the tradition of unsigned articles in 1860 when he was announced as the author of a series of essays narrated by The Uncommercial Traveler. Employed by the “great house of the Human Interest Brothers,” the Traveler wanders through a variety of London landscapes and rural scenes. In evocative, memorable images, Dickens describes workhouses, cheap theaters, churches, tramps, merchants, émigrés, and, at times, himself. The reminiscences, many of them recollections of childhood, supplement the autobiographical fragment Dickens wrote (published in Forster’s 1905 The Life of Dickens) and provide insight into a childhood more famously evoked in The Personal History of David Copperfield (20 parts, 1849-1850) and Great Expectations (1861). The latter novel, first published in All the Year Round beginning December 1, 1860, was in fact initially conceived as a sketch for The Uncommercial Traveler series. Many of the essays in this series incorporate current events, but unlike the polemical journalism of the same period, they are more clearly literary productions. In an otherwise limited formulation, John Forster aptly characterized Dickens’s approach in this kind of essay: “In his character of journalist Mr. Dickens has from the first especially laboured to cultivate the kindly affections and the fancy at the same time with the intellect.” More recently, Gordon Spence has analyzed the literary qualities of several of these essays in Charles Dickens as a Familiar Essayist (1977). During the last months of his life, while writing The Mystery of Edwin Drood (6 parts, 1870) and concluding a final series of phenomenally successful but physically punishing public readings, Dickens remained faithful to the profession that first nurtured his talent. In the spring of 1870 he made several trips to London to supervise his son Charley in the offices of All the Year Round. At the end of April he officially installed him as subeditor. On April 5, he gave a speech at the annual dinner of the Newsvendors' Benevolent Association, a group which aided the ragged boys and discharged servicemen who peddled newspapers in the streets. On June 2, seven days before his death, he added a codicil to his will which gave his son his interest in All the Year Round. In his journalism as in his fiction, he remained a consummate professional to the end. — James Diedrick, Albion College

  • Charles H. Clark (June 11, 1818 – November 20, 1873) was the mayor of Rochester, New York from 1858 to 1859. Clark was born in Saybrook, Conn., June 11, 1818. He taught in the academy in Clinton, Conn., for a year after graduating from Yale College in 1841; and then studied law, first in Saybrook, and subsequently in Rochester, N. Y. He was admitted to the bar in October 1845, and was for many years a successful lawyer in Rochester. In 1858 he was mayor of the city, and in June 1863, was appointed Colonel of the 54th Regiment of the N. Y. State National Guard. He died in Rochester, November 20, 1870, aged 52, having been affected for nearly a year with an organic disease of the heart which was apparently complicated with a disease of the brain. He married, March 8, 1848, Miss Maria B. Viele, of Saratoga County, N. Y., who with his two sons is survived him

  • Charlotte Brontë, married name Mrs. Arthur Bell Nicholls, pseudonym Currer Bell, (born April 21, 1816, Thornton, Yorkshire, England—died March 31, 1855, Haworth, Yorkshire), English novelist noted for Jane Eyre (1847), a strong narrative of a woman in conflict with her natural desires and social condition. The novel gave new truthfulness to Victorian fiction. She later wrote Shirley (1849) and Villette (1853).


    Her father was Patrick Brontë (1777–1861), an Anglican clergyman. Irish-born, he had changed his name from the more commonplace Brunty. After serving in several parishes, he moved with his wife, Maria Branwell Brontë, and their six small children to Haworth amid the Yorkshire moors in 1820, having been awarded a rectorship there. Soon after, Mrs. Brontë and the two eldest children (Maria and Elizabeth) died, leaving the father to care for the remaining three girls—Charlotte, Emily, and Anne—and a boy, Branwell. Their upbringing was aided by an aunt, Elizabeth Branwell, who left her native Cornwall and took up residence with the family at Haworth.

    In 1824 Charlotte and Emily, together with their elder sisters before their deaths, attended Clergy Daughters’ School at Cowan Bridge, near Kirkby Lonsdale, Lancashire. The fees were low, the food unattractive, and the discipline harsh. Charlotte condemned the school (perhaps exaggeratedly) long years afterward in Jane Eyre, under the thin disguise of Lowood Institution, and its principal, the Reverend William Carus Wilson, has been accepted as the counterpart of Mister Brocklehurst in the novel.

    Charlotte and Emily returned home in June 1825, and for more than five years the Brontë children learned and played there, writing and telling romantic tales for one another and inventing imaginative games played out at home or on the desolate moors.

    In 1831 Charlotte was sent to Miss Wooler’s school at Roe Head, near Huddersfield, where she stayed a year and made some lasting friendships; her correspondence with one of her friends, Ellen Nussey, continued until her death and has provided much of the current knowledge of her life. In 1832 she went home to teach her sisters but in 1835 returned to Roe Head as a teacher. She wished to improve her family’s position, and that was the only outlet that was offered to her unsatisfied energies. Branwell, moreover, was to start on his career as an artist, and it became necessary to supplement the family resources. The work, with its inevitable restrictions, was uncongenial to Charlotte. She fell into ill health and melancholia and in the summer of 1838 terminated her engagement.

    In 1839 Charlotte declined a proposal from the Reverend Henry Nussey, her friend’s brother, and some months later one from another young clergyman. At the same time Charlotte’s ambition to make the practical best of her talents and the need to pay Branwell’s debts urged her to spend some months as governess with the Whites at Upperwood House, Rawdon. Branwell’s talents for writing and painting, his good classical scholarship, and his social charm had engendered high hopes for him, but he was fundamentally unstable, weak-willed, and intemperate. He went from job to job and took refuge in alcohol and opium.

    Meanwhile, his sisters had planned to open a school together, which their aunt agreed to finance, and in February 1842 Charlotte and Emily went to Brussels as pupils to improve their qualifications in French and acquire some German. The talent displayed by both brought them to the notice of Constantin Héger, a fine teacher and a man of unusual perception. After a brief trip home upon the death of her aunt, Charlotte returned to Brussels as a pupil-teacher. She stayed there during 1843 but was lonely and depressed. Her friends had left Brussels, and Madame Héger appears to have become jealous of her. The nature of Charlotte’s attachment to Héger and the degree to which she understood herself have been much discussed. His was the most-interesting mind she had yet met, and he had perceived and evoked her latent talents. His strong and eccentric personality appealed both to her sense of humour and to her affections. She offered him an innocent but ardent devotion, but he tried to repress her emotions. The letters she wrote to him after her return may well be called love letters. When, however, he suggested that they were open to misapprehension, she stopped writing and applied herself, in silence, to disciplining her feelings. However Charlotte’s experiences in Brussels are interpreted, they were crucial for her development. She received a strict literary training, became aware of the resources of her own nature, and gathered material that served her, in various shapes, for all her novels.

    In 1844 Charlotte attempted to start a school that she had long envisaged in the parsonage itself, as her father’s failing sight precluded his being left alone. Prospectuses were issued, but no pupils were attracted to distant Haworth.

    In the autumn of 1845 Charlotte came across some poems by Emily, and that discovery led to the publication of a joint volume of Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell (1846), or Charlotte, Emily, and Anne; the pseudonyms were assumed to preserve secrecy and avoid the special treatment that they believed reviewers accorded to women. The book was issued at their own expense. It received few reviews and only two copies were sold. Nevertheless, a way had opened to them, and they were already trying to place the three novels they had written. Charlotte failed to place The Professor: A Tale but had, however, nearly finished Jane Eyre: An Autobiography, begun in August 1846 in Manchester, where she was staying with her father, who had gone there for an eye operation. When Smith, Elder and Company, declining The Professor, declared themselves willing to consider a three-volume novel with more action and excitement in it, she completed and submitted it at once. Jane Eyre was accepted, published less than eight weeks later (on October 16, 1847), and had an immediate success, far greater than that of the books that her sisters published the same year.

    The months that followed were tragic ones. Branwell died in September 1848, Emily in December, and Anne in May 1849. Charlotte completed Shirley: A Tale in the empty parsonage, and it appeared in October. In the following years Charlotte went three times to London as the guest of her publisher; there she met the novelist William Makepeace Thackeray and sat for her portrait by George Richmond. She stayed in 1851 with the writer Harriet Martineau and also visited her future biographer, Elizabeth Gaskell, in Manchester and entertained her at Haworth. Villette was published in January 1853. Meanwhile, in 1851, she had declined a third offer of marriage, that time from James Taylor, a member of Smith, Elder and Company.

    Her father’s curate, Arthur Bell Nicholls (1817–1906), an Irishman, was her fourth suitor. It took some months to win her father’s consent, but they were married on June 29, 1854, in Haworth church. They spent their honeymoon in Ireland and then returned to Haworth, where her husband had pledged himself to continue as curate to her father. He did not share his wife’s intellectual life, but she was happy to be loved for herself and to take up her duties as his wife. She began another book, Emma, of which some pages remain. Her pregnancy, however, was accompanied by exhausting sickness, and she died in 1855.

    A three-volume edition of her letters, The Letters of Charlotte Brontë, edited by Margaret Smith, was published in 1995–2004.

  • Edgar Allan Poe’s stature as a major figure in world literature is primarily based on his ingenious and profound short stories, poems, and critical theories, which established a highly influential rationale for the short form in both poetry and fiction. Regarded in literary histories and handbooks as the architect of the modern short story, Poe was also the principal forerunner of the “art for art’s sake” movement in 19th-century European literature. Whereas earlier critics predominantly concerned themselves with moral or ideological generalities, Poe focused his criticism on the specifics of style and construction that contributed to a work’s effectiveness or failure. In his own work, he demonstrated a brilliant command of language and technique as well as an inspired and original imagination. Poe’s poetry and short stories greatly influenced the French Symbolists of the late 19th century, who in turn altered the direction of modern literature. Poe’s father and mother were professional actors. At the time of his birth in 1809, they were members of a repertory company in Boston. Before Poe was three years old both of his parents died, and he was raised in the home of John Allan, a prosperous exporter from Richmond, Virginia, who never legally adopted his foster son. As a boy, Poe attended the best schools available, and was admitted to the University of Virginia at Charlottesville in 1825. While there he distinguished himself academically but was forced to leave after less than a year because of bad debts and inadequate financial support from Allan. Poe’s relationship with Allan disintegrated upon his return to Richmond in 1827, and soon after Poe left for Boston, where he enlisted in the army and also published his first poetry collection, Tamerlane, and Other Poems. The volume went unnoticed by readers and reviewers, and a second collection, Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems, received only slightly more attention when it appeared in 1829. That same year Poe was honorably discharged from the army, having attained the rank of regimental sergeant major, and was then admitted to the United States Military Academy at West Point. However, because Allan would neither provide his foster son with sufficient funds to maintain himself as a cadet nor give the consent necessary to resign from the Academy, Poe gained a dismissal by ignoring his duties and violating regulations. He subsequently went to New York City, where Poems, his third collection of verse, was published in 1831, and then to Baltimore, where he lived at the home of his aunt, Mrs. Maria Clemm. Over the next few years Poe’s first short stories appeared in the Philadelphia Saturday Courier and his “MS. Found in a Bottle” won a cash prize for best story in the Baltimore Saturday Visitor. Nevertheless, Poe was still not earning enough to live independently, nor did Allan’s death in 1834 provide him with an inheritance. The following year, however, his financial problems were temporarily alleviated when he accepted an editorship at The Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond, bringing with him his aunt and his 12-year-old cousin Virginia, whom he married in 1836. The Southern Literary Messenger was the first of several journals Poe would direct over the next 10 years and through which he rose to prominence as a leading man of letters in America. Poe made himself known not only as a superlative author of poetry and fiction, but also as a literary critic whose level of imagination and insight had hitherto been unapproached in American literature. While Poe’s writings gained attention in the late 1830s and early 1840s, the profits from his work remained meager, and he supported himself by editing Burton’s Gentleman’s Magazine and Graham’s Magazine in Philadelphia and the Broadway Journal in New York City. After his wife’s death from tuberculosis in 1847, Poe became involved in a number of romantic affairs. It was while he prepared for his second marriage that Poe, for reasons unknown, arrived in Baltimore in late September of 1849. On October 3, he was discovered in a state of semi-consciousness; he died four days later without regaining the necessary lucidity to explain what had happened during the last days of his life. Poe’s most conspicuous contribution to world literature derives from the analytical method he practiced both as a creative author and as a critic of the works of his contemporaries. His self-declared intention was to formulate strictly artistic ideals in a milieu that he thought overly concerned with the utilitarian value of literature, a tendency he termed the “heresy of the Didactic.” While Poe’s position includes the chief requisites of pure aestheticism, his emphasis on literary formalism was directly linked to his philosophical ideals: through the calculated use of language one may express, though always imperfectly, a vision of truth and the essential condition of human existence. Poe’s theory of literary creation is noted for two central points: first, a work must create a unity of effect on the reader to be considered successful; second, the production of this single effect should not be left to the hazards of accident or inspiration, but should to the minutest detail of style and subject be the result of rational deliberation on the part of the author. In poetry, this single effect must arouse the reader’s sense of beauty, an ideal that Poe closely associated with sadness, strangeness, and loss; in prose, the effect should be one revelatory of some truth, as in “tales of ratiocination” or works evoking “terror, or passion, or horror.” Aside from a common theoretical basis, there is a psychological intensity that is characteristic of Poe’s writings, especially the tales of horror that comprise his best and best-known works. These stories—which include “The Black Cat,” “The Cask of Amontillado,” and “The Tell-Tale Heart”—are often told by a first-person narrator, and through this voice Poe probes the workings of a character’s psyche. This technique foreshadows the psychological explorations of Fyodor Dostoyevsky and the school of psychological realism. In his Gothic tales, Poe also employed an essentially symbolic, almost allegorical method which gives such works as “The Fall of the House of Usher,” “The Masque of the Red Death,” and “Ligeia” an enigmatic quality that accounts for their enduring interest and links them with the symbolical works of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville. The influence of Poe’s tales may be seen in the work of later writers, including Ambrose Bierce and H.P. Lovecraft, who belong to a distinct tradition of horror literature initiated by Poe. In addition to his achievement as creator of the modern horror tale, Poe is also credited with parenting two other popular genres: science fiction and the detective story. In such works as “The Unparalleled Adventure of Hans Pfaall” and “Von Kempelen and His Discovery,” Poe took advantage of the fascination for science and technology that emerged in the early 19th century to produce speculative and fantastic narratives which anticipate a type of literature that did not become widely practiced until the 20th century. Similarly, Poe’s three tales of ratiocination—“The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” “The Purloined Letter,” and “The Mystery of Marie Roget”—are recognized as the models which established the major characters and literary conventions of detective fiction, specifically the amateur sleuth who solves a crime that has confounded the authorities and whose feats of deductive reasoning are documented by an admiring associate. Just as Poe influenced many succeeding authors and is regarded as an ancestor of such major literary movements as Symbolism and Surrealism, he was also influenced by earlier literary figures and movements. In his use of the demonic and the grotesque, Poe evidenced the impact of the stories of E.T.A. Hoffman and the Gothic novels of Ann Radcliffe, while the despair and melancholy in much of his writing reflects an affinity with the Romantic movement of the early 19th century. It was Poe’s particular genius that in his work he gave consummate artistic form both to his personal obsessions and those of previous literary generations, at the same time creating new forms which provided a means of expression for future artists. While Poe is most often remembered for his short fiction, his first love as a writer was poetry, which he began writing during his adolescence. His early verse reflects the influence of such English romantics as Lord ByronJohn Keats, and Percy Bysshe Shelley, yet foreshadows his later poetry which demonstrates a subjective outlook and surreal, mystic vision. “Tamerlane” and “Al Aaraaf” exemplify Poe’s evolution from the portrayal of Byronic heroes to the depiction of journeys within his own imagination and subconscious. The former piece, reminiscent of Byron’s “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage,” recounts the life and adventures of a 14th-century Mongol conqueror; the latter poem portrays a dreamworld where neither good nor evil permanently reside and where absolute beauty can be directly discerned. In other poems—“To Helen,” “Lenore,” and “The Raven” in particular—Poe investigates the loss of ideal beauty and the difficulty in regaining it. These pieces are usually narrated by a young man who laments the untimely death of his beloved. To Helen” is a three stanza lyric that has been called one of the most beautiful love poems in the English language. The subject of the work is a woman who becomes, in the eyes of the narrator, a personification of the classical beauty of ancient Greece and Rome. “Lenore” presents ways in which the dead are best remembered, either by mourning or celebrating life beyond earthly boundaries. In “The Raven,” Poe successfully unites his philosophical and aesthetic ideals. In this psychological piece, a young scholar is emotionally tormented by a raven’s ominous repetition of “Nevermore” in answer to his question about the probability of an afterlife with his deceased lover. Charles Baudelaire noted in his introduction to the French edition of “The Raven”: “It is indeed the poem of the sleeplessness of despair; it lacks nothing: neither the fever of ideas, nor the violence of colors, nor sickly reasoning, nor drivelling terror, nor even the bizarre gaiety of suffering which makes it more terrible.” Poe also wrote poems that were intended to be read aloud. Experimenting with combinations of sound and rhythm, he employed such technical devices as repetition, parallelism, internal rhyme, alliteration, and assonance to produce works that are unique in American poetry for their haunting, musical quality. In “The Bells,” for example, the repetition of the word “bells” in various structures accentuates the unique tonality of the different types of bells described in the poem. While his works were not conspicuously acclaimed during his lifetime, Poe did earn due respect as a gifted fiction writer, poet, and man of letters, and occasionally he achieved a measure of popular success, especially following the appearance of “The Raven.” After his death, however, the history of his critical reception becomes one of dramatically uneven judgments and interpretations. This state of affairs was initiated by Poe’s one-time friend and literary executor R.W. Griswold, who, in a libelous obituary notice in the New York Tribune bearing the byline “Ludwig,” attributed the depravity and psychological aberrations of many of the characters in Poe’s fiction to Poe himself. In retrospect, Griswold’s vilifications seem ultimately to have elicited as much sympathy as censure with respect to Poe and his work, leading subsequent biographers of the late 19th century to defend, sometimes too devotedly, Poe’s name. It was not until the 1941 biography by A.H. Quinn that a balanced view was provided of Poe, his work, and the relationship between the author’s life and his imagination. Nevertheless, the identification of Poe with the murderers and madmen of his works survived and flourished in the 20th century, most prominently in the form of psychoanalytical studies such as those of Marie Bonaparte and Joseph Wood Krutch. Added to the controversy over the sanity, or at best the maturity of Poe (Paul Elmer More called him “the poet of unripe boys and unsound men”), was the question of the value of Poe’s works as serious literature. At the forefront of Poe’s detractors were such eminent figures as Henry James, Aldous Huxley, and T.S. Eliot, who dismissed Poe’s works as juvenile, vulgar, and artistically debased; in contrast, these same works have been judged to be of the highest literary merit by such writers as Bernard Shaw and William Carlos Williams. Complementing Poe’s erratic reputation among English and American critics is the more stable, and generally more elevated opinion of critics elsewhere in the world, particularly in France. Following the extensive translations and commentaries of Charles Baudelaire in the 1850s, Poe’s works were received with a peculiar esteem by French writers, most profoundly those associated with the late 19th-century movement of Symbolism, who admired Poe’s transcendent aspirations as a poet; the 20th-century movement of Surrealism, which valued Poe’s bizarre and apparently unruled imagination; and such figures as Paul Valéry, who found in Poe’s theories and thought an ideal of supreme rationalism. In other countries, Poe’s works have enjoyed a similar regard, and numerous studies have been written tracing the influence of the American author on the international literary scene, especially in Russia, Japan, Scandinavia, and Latin America. Today, Poe is recognized as one of the foremost progenitors of modern literature, both in its popular forms, such as horror and detective fiction, and in its more complex and self-conscious forms, which represent the essential artistic manner of the 20th century. In contrast to earlier critics who viewed the man and his works as one, criticism of the past 25 years has developed a view of Poe as a detached artist who was more concerned with displaying his virtuosity than with expressing his soul, and who maintained an ironic rather than an autobiographical relationship to his writings. While at one time critics such as Yvor Winters wished to remove Poe from literary history, his works remain integral to any conception of modernism in world literature. Herbert Marshall McLuhan wrote in an essay entitled “Edgar Poe’s Tradition”: “While the New England dons primly turned the pages of Plato and Buddha beside a tea-cozy, and while Browning and Tennyson were creating a parochial fog for the English mind to relax in, Poe never lost contact with the terrible pathos of his time. Coevally with Baudelaire, and long before Conrad and Eliot, he explored the heart of darkness.”

  • Edwin Abbott Abbott was the eldest son of Edwin Abbott (1808–1882), headmaster of the Philological School, Marylebone, and his wife, Jane Abbott (1806–1882). His parents were first cousins. He was born in London and educated at the City of London School and at St John's College, Cambridge, where he took the highest honours of his class in classics, mathematics and theology, and became a fellow of his college. In particular, he was 1st Smith's prizeman in 1861. In 1862 he took orders. After holding masterships at King Edward's School, Birmingham, he succeeded G. F. Mortimer as headmaster of the City of London School in 1865, at the early age of 26. There, he oversaw the education of future Prime Minister H. H. Asquith. Abbott was Hulsean lecturer in 1876.

  • Pen-name of Yoshikawa Hidetsugu. Yoshikawa is well-known for his work as a Japanese historical fiction novelist, and a number of re-makes have been spawned off his work. In 1960, he received the Order of Cultural Merit. Eiji Yoshikawa (吉川 英治, August 11, 1892 – September 7, 1962) was a Japanese historical novelist. Among his best-known novels, most are revisions of older classics. He was mainly influenced by classics such as The Tale of the Heike, Tale of Genji, Outlaws of the Marsh, and Romance of the Three Kingdoms, many of which he retold in his own style. As an example, the original manuscript of Taiko is 15 volumes; Yoshikawa took up to retell it in a more accessible tone, and reduced it to only two volumes. His other books also serve similar purposes and, although most of his novels are not original works, he created a huge amount of work and a renewed interest in the past. He was awarded the Cultural Order of Merit in 1960 (the highest award for a man of letters in Japan), the Order of the Sacred Treasure and the Mainichi Art Award just before his death from cancer in 1962. He is cited as one of the best historical novelists in Japan.

  • Émile Zola, 1840’ta Paris’te doğdu. Çeşitli dergilere makaleler verdi, öyküler yazdı. Kendi yaşamından yola çıkarak yazdığı, çirkinliklerin açıkça anlatıldığı ilk romanı La Confession de Claude (Claud’ un İtirafları), yalnızca halkın dikkatini çekmekle kalmadı, polisin ve Hachette’in tepkisiyle karşılaştı. Bunun üzerine yayınevinden ayrılarak serbest gazetecilikle geçinmeye başladı. 1867’de Thérèse Raquin’i yayımladıktan sonra, Balzac’ın İnsanlık Komedyası’na benzer bir dizi roman yazmayı kararlaştırdı. Bu diziden 1877’de çıkan Meyhane, Zola’nın en çok satan yazarlar arasına girmesini sağladı. Dizinin en ünlü romanları ise, Nana ile Germinal oldu. Edebiyatta doğalcılığın kurucusu olarak kabul edilen Zola, 1902’de evinde karbonmonoksit gazından zehirlenerek öldü.

  • Emily Brontë, in full Emily Jane Brontë, pseudonym Ellis Bell, (born July 30, 1818, Thornton, Yorkshire, England—died December 19, 1848, Haworth, Yorkshire), English novelist and poet who produced but one novelWuthering Heights (1847), a highly imaginative work of passion and hate set on the Yorkshire moors. Emily was perhaps the greatest of the three Brontë sisters, but the record of her life is extremely meagre, for she was silent and reserved and left no correspondence of interest, and her single novel darkens rather than solves the mystery of her spiritual existence.


    Her father, Patrick Brontë (1777–1861), an Irishman, held a number of curacies: Hartshead-cum-Clifton, Yorkshire, was the birthplace of his elder daughters, Maria and Elizabeth (who died young), and nearby Thornton that of Emily and her siblings Charlotte, Patrick Branwell, and Anne. In 1820 their father became rector of Haworth, remaining there for the rest of his life.

    After the death of their mother in 1821, the children were left very much to themselves in the bleak moorland rectory. The children were educated, during their early life, at home, except for a single year that Charlotte and Emily spent at the Clergy Daughters’ School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire. In 1835, when Charlotte secured a teaching position at Miss Wooler’s school at Roe Head, Emily accompanied her as a pupil but suffered from homesickness and remained only three months. In 1838 Emily spent six exhausting months as a teacher in Miss Patchett’s school at Law Hill, near Halifax, and then resigned.

    To keep the family together at home, Charlotte planned to keep a school for girls at Haworth. In February 1842 she and Emily went to Brussels to learn foreign languages and school management at the Pension Héger. Although Emily pined for home and for the wild moorlands, it seems that in Brussels she was better appreciated than Charlotte. Her passionate nature was more easily understood than Charlotte’s decorous temperament. In October, however, when her aunt died, Emily returned permanently to Haworth.

    In 1845 Charlotte came across some poems by Emily, and this led to the discovery that all three sisters—Charlotte, Emily, and Anne—had written verse. A year later they published jointly a volume of verse, Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell, the initials of these pseudonyms being those of the sisters; it contained 21 of Emily’s poems, and a consensus of later criticism has accepted the fact that Emily’s verse alone reveals true poetic genius. The venture cost the sisters about £50 in all, and only two copies were sold.

    By midsummer of 1847 Emily’s Wuthering Heights and Anne’s Agnes Grey had been accepted for joint publication by J. Cautley Newby of London, but publication of the three volumes was delayed until the appearance of their sister Charlotte’s Jane Eyre, which was immediately and hugely successful. Wuthering Heights, when published in December 1847, did not fare well; critics were hostile, calling it too savage, too animal-like, and clumsy in construction. Only later did it come to be considered one of the finest novels in the English language.

    Soon after the publication of her novel, Emily’s health began to fail rapidly. She had been ill for some time, but now her breathing became difficult, and she suffered great pain. She died of tuberculosis in December 1848.

    Wuthering Heights

    Emily Brontë’s work on Wuthering Heights cannot be dated, and she may well have spent a long time on this intense, solidly imagined novel. It is distinguished from other novels of the period by its dramatic and poetic presentation, its abstention from all comment by the author, and its unusual structure. It recounts in the retrospective narrative of an onlooker, which in turn includes shorter narratives, the impact of the waif Heathcliff on the two families of Earnshaw and Linton in a remote Yorkshire district at the end of the 18th century. Embittered by abuse and by the marriage of Cathy Earnshaw—who shares his stormy nature and whom he loves—to the gentle and prosperous Edgar Linton, Heathcliff plans a revenge on both families, extending into the second generation. Cathy’s death in childbirth fails to set him free from his love-hate relationship with her, and the obsessive haunting persists until his death; the marriage of the surviving heirs of Earnshaw and Linton restores peace.

    Sharing her sisters’ dry humour and Charlotte’s violent imagination, Emily diverges from them in making no use of the events of her own life and showing no preoccupation with a spinster’s state or a governess’s position. Working, like them, within a confined scene and with a small group of characters, she constructs an action, based on profound and primitive energies of love and hate, which proceeds logically and economically, making no use of such coincidences as Charlotte relies on, requiring no rich romantic similes or rhetorical patterns, and confining the superb dialogue to what is immediately relevant to the subject. The sombre power of the book and the elements of brutality in the characters affronted some 19th-century opinion. Its supposed masculine quality was adduced to support the claim, based on the memories of her brother Branwell’s friends long after his death, that he was author or part author of it. While it is not possible to clear up all the minor puzzles, neither the external nor the internal evidence offered is substantial enough to weigh against Charlotte’s plain statement that Emily was the author.

  • Erich Fromm, Ph.D. (Sociology, University of Heidelberg, 1922), was a psychoanalyst and social philosopher who explored the interaction between psychology and society, and held various professorships in psychology in the U.S. and Mexico in the mid-20th century. Fromm's theory is a rather unique blend of Freud and Marx. Freud, of course, emphasized the unconscious, biological drives, repression, and so on. In other words, Freud postulated that our characters were determined by biology. Marx, on the other hand, saw people as determined by their society, and most especially by their economic systems.

    • Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections and two non-fiction works. Three novels, four collections of short stories and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of these are considered classics of American literature.
    • Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois, and after high school he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1922, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent, and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway's first novel, was published in 1926.
    • After his 1927 divorce from Hadley Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer. They divorced after he returned from Spanish Civil War where he had acted as a journalist, and after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940. They separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II; during which he was present at the Normandy Landings and liberation of Paris.
    • Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two plane crashes that left him in pain and ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and 1940s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961.

  • Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was an American writer of novels and short stories, whose works have been seen as evocative of the Jazz Age, a term he himself allegedly coined. He is regarded as one of the greatest twentieth century writers. Fitzgerald was of the self-styled "Lost Generation," Americans born in the 1890s who came of age during World War I. He finished four novels, left a fifth unfinished, and wrote dozens of short stories that treat themes of youth, despair, and age. He was married to Zelda Fitzgerald.

  • Frances Hodgson Burnettnée Frances Eliza Hodgson, (born Nov. 24, 1849, Manchester, Eng.—died Oct. 29, 1924, Plandome, N.Y., U.S.), American playwright and author who wrote the popular novel Little Lord Fauntleroy.

    Frances Hodgson grew up in increasingly straitened circumstances after the death of her father in 1854. In 1865 the family immigrated to the United States and settled in New Market, near Knoxville, Tennessee, where the promise of support from a maternal uncle failed to materialize. In 1868 Hodgson managed to place a story with Godey’s Lady’s Book. Within a few years she was being published regularly in Godey’sPeterson’s Ladies’ MagazineScribner’s Monthly, and Harper’s. In 1873, after a year’s visit to England, she married Dr. Swan Moses Burnett of New Market (divorced 1898).

    Burnett’s first novel, That Lass o’ Lowrie’s, which had been serialized in Scribner’s, was published in 1877. Like her short stories, the book combined a remarkable gift for realistic detail in portraying scenes of working-class life—unusual in that day—with a plot consisting of the most romantic and improbable of turns. After moving with her husband to Washington, D.C., Burnett wrote the novels Haworth’s (1879), Louisiana (1880), A Fair Barbarian (1881), and Through One Administration (1883), as well as a play, Esmeralda (1881), written with actor-playwright William Gillette.

    In 1886 Burnett’s most famous and successful book appeared. First serialized in St. Nicholas magazine, Little Lord Fauntleroy was intended as a children’s book, but it had its greatest appeal to mothers. It established the main character’s long curls (based on her son Vivian’s) and velvet suit with lace collar (based on Oscar Wilde’s attire) as a mother’s model for small boys, who generally hated it. The book sold more than half a million copies, and Burnett’s income was increased by her dramatized version, which quickly became a repertory standard on the order of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. In 1888 she won a lawsuit in England over the dramatic rights to Little Lord Fauntleroy, establishing a precedent that was incorporated into British copyright law in 1911.

    Her later books include Sara Crewe (1888), dramatized as The Little Princess (1905), and The Secret Garden (1909), both of which were also written for children. The Lady of Quality (1896) has been considered the best of her other plays. These, like most of her 40-odd novels, stress sentimental, romantic themes. In 1893 she published a memoir of her youth, The One I Knew Best of All. From the mid-1890s she lived mainly in England, but in 1909 she built a house in Plandome, Long Island, New York, where she died in 1924. Her son Vivian Burnett, the model for Little Lord Fauntleroy, wrote a biography of her in 1927 entitled The Romantick Lady.

  • Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (Ph.D., Philology, Leipzig University, 1869) was a German philosopher of the late 19th century who challenged the foundations of Christianity and traditional morality. He was interested in the enhancement of individual and cultural health, and believed in life, creativity, power, and the realities of the world we live in, rather than those situated in a world beyond. Central to his philosophy is the idea of “life-affirmation,” which involves a questioning of all doctrines that drain life's expansive energies, however socially prevalent those views might be. Often referred to as one of the first existentialist philosophers along with Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855).

  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky, in full Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky, Dostoyevsky also spelled Dostoevsky, (born November 11 [October 30, Old Style], 1821, Moscow, Russia—died February 9 [January 28, Old Style], 1881, St. Petersburg), Russian novelist and short-story writer whose psychological penetration into the darkest recesses of the human heart, together with his unsurpassed moments of illumination, had an immense influence on 20th-century fiction.

    Dostoyevsky is usually regarded as one of the finest novelists who ever lived. Literary modernismexistentialism, and various schools of psychologytheology, and literary criticism have been profoundly shaped by his ideas. His works are often called prophetic because he so accurately predicted how Russia’s revolutionaries would behave if they came to power. In his time he was also renowned for his activity as a journalist.

    Major works and their characteristics

    Dostoyevsky is best known for his novella Notes from the Underground and for four long novels, Crime and PunishmentThe IdiotThe Possessed (also and more accurately known as The Demons and The Devils), and The Brothers Karamazov. Each of these works is famous for its psychological profundity, and, indeed, Dostoyevsky is commonly regarded as one of the greatest psychologists in the history of literature. He specialized in the analysis of pathological states of mind that lead to insanity, murder, and suicide and in the exploration of the emotions of humiliation, self-destruction, tyrannical domination, and murderous rage. These major works are also renowned as great “novels of ideas” that treat timeless and timely issues in philosophy and politics. Psychology and philosophy are closely linked in Dostoyevsky’s portrayals of intellectuals, who “feel ideas” in the depths of their souls. Finally, these novels broke new ground with their experiments in literary form.

    Background and early life

    The major events of Dostoyevsky’s life—mock execution, imprisonment in Siberia, and epileptic seizures—were so well known that, even apart from his work, Dostoyevsky achieved great celebrity in his own time. Indeed, he frequently capitalized on his legend by drawing on the highly dramatic incidents of his life in creating his greatest characters. Even so, some events in his life have remained clouded in mystery, and careless speculations have unfortunately gained the status of fact.

  • Eric Arthur Blair, better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. His work is marked by keen intelligence and wit, a profound awareness of social injustice, an intense opposition to totalitarianism, a passion for clarity in language, and a belief in democratic socialism. In addition to his literary career Orwell served as a police officer with the Indian Imperial Police in Burma from 1922-1927 and fought with the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1937. Orwell was severely wounded when he was shot through his throat. Later the organization that he had joined when he joined the Republican cause, The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), was painted by the pro-Soviet Communists as a Trotskyist organization (Trotsky was Joseph Stalin's enemy) and disbanded. Orwell and his wife were accused of "rabid Trotskyism" and tried in absentia in Barcelona, along with other leaders of the POUM, in 1938. However by then they had escaped from Spain and returned to England. Between 1941 and 1943, Orwell worked on propaganda for the BBC. In 1943, he became literary editor of the Tribune, a weekly left-wing magazine. He was a prolific polemical journalist, article writer, literary critic, reviewer, poet, and writer of fiction, and, considered perhaps the twentieth century's best chronicler of English culture. Orwell is best known for the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (published in 1949) and the satirical novella Animal Farm (1945) — they have together sold more copies than any two books by any other twentieth-century author. His 1938 book Homage to Catalonia, an account of his experiences as a volunteer on the Republican side during the Spanish Civil War, together with numerous essays on politics, literature, language, and culture, have been widely acclaimed.

  • Herman Melville was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. His first two books gained much attention, though they were not bestsellers, and his popularity declined precipitously only a few years later. By the time of his death he had been almost completely forgotten, but his longest novel, Moby Dick — largely considered a failure during his lifetime, and most responsible for Melville's fall from favor with the reading public — was rediscovered in the 20th century as one of the chief literary masterpieces of both American and world literature.

  • Immanuel Kant was an 18th-century philosopher from Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He's regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe & of the late Enlightenment. His most important work is The Critique of Pure Reason, an investigation of reason itself. It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics & epistemology, & highlights his own contribution to these areas. Other main works of his maturity are The Critique of Practical Reason, which is about ethics, & The Critique of Judgment, about esthetics & teleology.

  • Jane Austen, (born December 16, 1775, Steventon, Hampshire, England—died July 18, 1817, Winchester, Hampshire), English writer who first gave the novel its distinctly modern character through her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life. She published four novels during her lifetime: Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815). In these and in Persuasion and Northanger Abbey (published together posthumously, 1817), she vividly depicted English middle-class life during the early 19th century. Her novels defined the era’s novel of manners, but they also became timeless classics that remained critical and popular successes for over two centuries after her death.


    Jane Austen was born in the Hampshire village of Steventon, where her father, the Reverend George Austen, was rector. She was the second daughter and seventh child in a family of eight—six boys and two girls. Her closest companion throughout her life was her elder sister, Cassandra; neither Jane nor Cassandra married. Their father was a scholar who encouraged the love of learning in his children. His wife, Cassandra (née Leigh), was a woman of ready wit, famed for her impromptu verses and stories. The great family amusement was acting.

    Jane Austen’s lively and affectionate family circle provided a stimulating context for her writing. Moreover, her experience was carried far beyond Steventon rectory by an extensive network of relationships by blood and friendship. It was this world—of the minor landed gentry and the country clergy, in the village, the neighbourhood, and the country town, with occasional visits to Bath and to London—that she was to use in the settings, characters, and subject matter of her novels.

    Her earliest known writings date from about 1787, and between then and 1793 she wrote a large body of material that has survived in three manuscript notebooks: Volume the FirstVolume the Second, and Volume the Third. These contain plays, verses, short novels, and other prose and show Austen engaged in the parody of existing literary forms, notably the genres of the sentimental novel and sentimental comedy. Her passage to a more serious view of life from the exuberant high spirits and extravagances of her earliest writings is evident in Lady Susan, a short epistolary novel written about 1793–94 (and not published until 1871). This portrait of a woman bent on the exercise of her own powerful mind and personality to the point of social self-destruction is, in effect, a study of frustration and of woman’s fate in a society that has no use for her talents.

  • Jean Rhys (originally Ella Gwendolen Rees Williams) was a Caribbean novelist who wrote in the mid 20th century. Her first four novels were published during the 1920s and 1930s, but it was not until the publication of Wide Sargasso Sea in 1966 that she emerged as a significant literary figure. A "prequel" to Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, Wide Sargasso Sea won a prestigious WH Smith Literary Award in 1967. Rhys was born in Dominica (a formerly British island in the Caribbean) to a Welsh father and Scottish mother. She moved to England at the age of sixteen, where she worked unsuccessfully as a chorus girl. In the 1920s, she relocated to Europe, travelling as a Bohemian artist and taking up residence sporadically in Paris. During this period, Rhys lived in near poverty, while familiarising herself with modern art and literature, and acquiring the alcoholism that would persist throughout the rest of her life. Her experience of a patriarchal society and feelings of displacement during this period would form some of the most important themes in her work. 

  • Jean Webster, original name Alice Jane Chandler Webster, (born July 24, 1876, Fredonia, N.Y., U.S.—died June 11, 1916, New York, N.Y.), American writer who is best remembered for her fiction best-seller Daddy-Long-Legs, which was also successful in stage and motion picture adaptations.

    Webster adopted the name Jean while attending the Lady Jane Grey School in Binghamton, New York. In 1901 she graduated from Vassar CollegePoughkeepsie, New York, where she was a classmate and close friend of the poet Adelaide Crapsey. Webster, who was a grandniece of Mark Twain, showed an early interest in writing. While in college she contributed a weekly column to the Poughkeepsie Sunday Courier and at the same time started writing the stories that were collected in her first book, When Patty Went to College (1903).

    Webster soon followed with The Wheat Princess (1905) and Jerry, Junior (1907), both inspired by her extended visit to Italy; The Four Pools Mystery (1908), published anonymously; Much Ado About Peter (1909); Just Patty (1911), more stories about her first character, who was perhaps modeled on Crapsey; and Daddy-Long-Legs (1912), her most popular work. Daddy-Long-Legs, first serialized in the Ladies’ Home Journal, became a best-seller when published in book form. It was a successful stage play (1914) in Webster’s own adaptation, and a popular Mary Pickford silent film (1919). Daddy-Long-Legs was not only a successful piece of fiction but also a stimulus to reform the institutional treatment of orphans. In 1914 Webster published Dear Enemy, a sequel to Daddy-Long-Legs and also a best-seller.

  • Joseph Conrad, original name Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, (born December 3, 1857, BerdichevUkraineRussian Empire [now Berdychiv, Ukraine]—died August 3, 1924, CanterburyKent, England), English novelist and short-story writer of Polish descent, whose works include the novels Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), and The Secret Agent (1907) and the short story “Heart of Darkness” (1902). During his lifetime Conrad was admired for the richness of his prose and his renderings of dangerous life at sea and in exotic places. But his initial reputation as a masterful teller of colourful adventures of the sea masked his fascination with the individual when faced with nature’s invariable unconcern, man’s frequent malevolence, and his inner battles with good and evil. To Conrad, the sea meant above all the tragedy of loneliness. A writer of complex skill and striking insight, but above all of an intensely personal vision, he has been increasingly regarded as one of the greatest English novelists.

    Early years

    Conrad’s father, Apollo Nalęcz Korzeniowski, a poet and an ardent Polish patriot, was one of the organizers of the committee that went on in 1863 to direct the Polish insurrection against Russian rule. He was arrested in late 1861 and was sent into exile at Vologda in northern Russia. His wife and four-year-old son followed him there, and the harsh climate hastened his wife’s death from tuberculosis in 1865. In A Personal Record Conrad relates that his first introduction to the English language was at the age of eight, when his father was translating the works of Shakespeare and Victor Hugo in order to support the household. In those solitary years with his father he read the works of Sir Walter ScottJames Fenimore CooperCharles Dickens, and William Makepeace Thackeray in Polish and French. Apollo was ill with tuberculosis and died in Kraków in 1869. Responsibility for the boy was assumed by his maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski, a lawyer, who provided his nephew with advice, admonition, financial help, and love. He sent Conrad to school at Kraków and then to Switzerland, but the boy was bored by school and yearned to go to sea. In 1874 Conrad left for Marseille with the intention of going to sea.

    Life at sea

    Bobrowski made him an allowance of 2,000 francs a year and put him in touch with a merchant named Delestang, in whose ships Conrad sailed in the French merchant service. His first voyage, on the Mont-Blanc to Martinique, was as a passenger; on its next voyage he sailed as an apprentice. In July 1876 he again sailed to the West Indies, as a steward on the Saint-Antoine. On this voyage Conrad seems to have taken part in some unlawful enterprise, probably gunrunning, and to have sailed along the coast of Venezuela, memories of which were to find a place in Nostromo. The first mate of the vessel, a Corsican named Dominic Cervoni, was the model for the hero of that novel and was to play a picturesque role in Conrad’s life and work.

    Conrad became heavily enmeshed in debt upon returning to Marseille and apparently unsuccessfully attempted to commit suicide. As a sailor in the French merchant navy he was liable to conscription when he came of age, so after his recovery he signed on in April 1878 as a deckhand on a British freighter bound for Constantinople with a cargo of coal. After the return journey his ship landed him at Lowestoft, England, in June 1878. It was Conrad’s first English landfall, and he spoke only a few words of the language of which he was to become a recognized master. Conrad remained in England, and in the following October he shipped as an ordinary seaman aboard a wool clipper on the London–Sydney run.

    Conrad was to serve 16 years in the British merchant navy. In June 1880 he passed his examination as second mate, and in April 1881 he joined the Palestine, a bark of 425 tons. This move proved to be an important event in his life; it took him to the Far East for the first time, and it was also a continuously troubled voyage, which provided him with literary material that he would use later. Beset by gales, accidentally rammed by a steamer, and deserted by a sizable portion of her crew, the Palestine nevertheless had made it as far as the East Indies when her cargo of coal caught fire and the crew had to take to the lifeboats; Conrad’s initial landing in the East, on an island off Sumatra, took place only after a 13 1/2-hour voyage in an open boat. In 1898 Conrad published his account of his experiences on the Palestine, with only slight alterations, as the short story “Youth,” a remarkable tale of a young officer’s first command.

    e returned to London by passenger steamer, and in September 1883 he shipped as mate on the Riversdale, leaving her at Madras to join the Narcissus at Bombay. This voyage gave him material for his novel The Nigger of the “Narcissus,” the story of an egocentric black sailor’s deterioration and death aboard ship. At about this time Conrad began writing his earliest known letters in the English language. In between subsequent voyages Conrad studied for his first mate’s certificate, and in 1886 two notable events occurred: he became a British subject in August, and three months later he obtained his master mariner’s certificate.

    In February 1887 he sailed as first mate on the Highland Forest, bound for Semarang, Java. Her captain was John McWhirr, whom he later immortalized under the same name as the heroic, unimaginative captain of the steamer Nan Shan in Typhoon. He then joined the Vidar, a locally owned steamship trading among the islands of the southeast Asian archipelago. During the five or six voyages he made in four and a half months, Conrad was discovering and exploring the world he was to re-create in his first novels, Almayer’s Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, and Lord Jim, as well as several short stories.

    After leaving the Vidar Conrad unexpectedly obtained his first command, on the Otago, sailing from Bangkok, an experience out of which he was to make his stories “The Shadow-Line” and “Falk.” He took over the Otago in unpropitious circumstances. The captain Conrad replaced had died at sea, and by the time the ship reached Singapore, a voyage of 800 miles (1,300 km) that took three weeks because of lack of wind, the whole ship’s company, except Conrad and the cook, was down with fever. Conrad then discovered to his dismay that his predecessor had sold almost all the ship’s supply of quinine.

    Writing career: notable works, themes, and style of Joseph Conrad

    Back in London in the summer of 1889, Conrad took rooms near the Thames and, while waiting for a command, began to write Almayer’s Folly. The task was interrupted by the strangest and probably the most important of his adventures. As a child in Poland, he had stuck his finger on the centre of the map of Africa and said, “When I grow up I shall go there.” In 1889 the Congo Free State was four years old as a political entity and already notorious as a sphere of imperialistic exploitation. Conrad’s childhood dream took positive shape in the ambition to command a Congo River steamboat. Using what influence he could, he went to Brussels and secured an appointment. What he saw, did, and felt in the Congo are largely recorded in “Heart of Darkness,” his most famous, finest, and most enigmatic story, the title of which signifies not only the heart of Africa, the dark continent, but also the heart of evil—everything that is corrupt, nihilistic, malign—and perhaps the heart of man. The story is central to Conrad’s work and vision, and it is difficult not to think of his Congo experiences as traumatic. He may have exaggerated when he said, “Before the Congo I was a mere animal,” but in a real sense the dying Kurtz’s cry, “The horror! The horror!” was Conrad’s. He suffered psychological, spiritual, even metaphysical shock in the Congo, and his physical health was also damaged; for the rest of his life, he was racked by recurrent fever and gout.

    Conrad was in the Congo for four months, returning to England in January 1891. He made several more voyages as a first mate, but by 1894, when his guardian Tadeusz Bobrowski died, his sea life was over. In the spring of 1894 Conrad sent Almayer’s Folly to the London publisher Fisher Unwin, and the book was published in April 1895. It was as the author of this novel that Conrad adopted the name by which he is known: he had learned from long experience that the name Korzeniowski was impossible on British lips.

    Unwin’s manuscript reader, the critic Edward Garnetturged Conrad to begin a second novel, and so Almayer’s Folly was followed in 1896 by An Outcast of the Islands, which repeats the theme of a foolish and blindly superficial character meeting the tragic consequences of his own failings in a tropical region far from the company of his fellow Europeans. These two novels provoked a misunderstanding of Conrad’s talents and purpose which dogged him the rest of his life. Set in the Malayan archipelago, they caused him to be labeled a writer of exotic tales, a reputation which a series of novels and short stories about the sea—The Nigger of the “Narcissus” (1897), Lord Jim (1900), Youth (1902), Typhoon (1902), and others—seemed only to confirm. But words of his own about the “Narcissus” give the real reason for his choice of settings: “the problem . . . is not a problem of the sea, it is merely a problem that has risen on board a ship where the conditions of complete isolation from all land entanglements make it stand out with a particular force and colouring.” This is equally true of his other works; the latter part of Lord Jim takes place in a jungle village not because the emotional and moral problems that interest Conrad are those peculiar to jungle villages, but because there Jim’s feelings of guilt, responsibility, and insecurity—feelings common to mankind—work themselves out with a logic and inevitability that are enforced by his isolation. It is this purpose, rather than a taste for the outlandish, that distinguishes Conrad’s work from that of many novelists of the 19th and early 20th centuries. They, for the most part, were concerned to widen the scope of the novel, to act, in Balzac’s phrase, as the natural historians of society; Conrad instead aimed at the isolation and concentration of tragedy.

    In 1895 Conrad married the 22-year-old Jessie George, by whom he had two sons. He thereafter resided mainly in the southeast corner of England, where his life as an author was plagued by poor health, near poverty, and difficulties of temperament. It was not until 1910, after he had written what are now considered his finest novels—Lord Jim (1900), Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), the last being three novels of political intrigue and romance—that his financial situation became relatively secure. He was awarded a Civil List pension of £100, and the American collector John Quinn began to buy his manuscripts—for what now seem ludicrously low prices. His novel Chance was successfully serialized in the New York Herald in 1912, and his novel Victory, published in 1915, was no less successful. Though hampered by rheumatism, Conrad continued to write for the remaining years of his life. In April 1924 he refused an offer of knighthood from Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and he died shortly thereafter.

    In his own time Conrad was praised for his power to depict life at sea and in the tropics and for his works’ qualities of “romance”—a word used basically to denote his power of using an elaborate prose style to cast a film of illusory splendour over somewhat sordid events. His reputation diminished after his death, and a revival of interest in his work later directed attention to different qualities and to different books than his contemporaries had emphasized.

    An account of the themes of some of these books should indicate where modern critics lay emphasis. Nostromo (1904), a story of revolution, politics, and financial manipulation in a South American republic, centres, for all its close-packed incidents, upon one idea—the corruption of the characters by the ambitions that they set before themselves, ambitions concerned with silver, which forms the republic’s wealth and which is the central symbol around which the novel is organized. The ambitions range from simple greed to idealistic desires for reform and justice. All lead to moral disaster, and the nobler the ambition the greater its possessor’s self-disgust as he realizes his plight.

    “Heart of Darkness,” which follows closely the actual events of Conrad’s Congo journey, tells of the narrator’s fascination by a mysterious white man, Kurtz, who, by his eloquence and hypnotic personality, dominates the brutal tribesmen around him. Full of contempt for the greedy traders who exploit the natives, the narrator cannot deny the power of this figure of evil who calls forth from him something approaching reluctant loyalty. The Secret Agent (1907), a sustained essay in the ironic and one of Conrad’s finest works, deals with the equivocal world of anarchists, police, politicians, and agents provocateurs in London. Victory (1915) describes the unsuccessful attempts of a detached, nihilistic observer of life to protect himself and his hapless female companion from the murderous machinations of a trio of rogues on an isolated island.

    Conrad’s view of life is indeed deeply pessimistic. In every idealism are the seeds of corruption, and the most honourable men find their unquestioned standards totally inadequate to defend themselves against the assaults of evil. It is significant that Conrad repeats again and again situations in which such men are obliged to admit emotional kinship with those whom they have expected only to despise. This well-nigh despairing vision gains much of its force from the feeling that Conrad accepted it reluctantly, rather than with morbid enjoyment.

    Influence of Joseph Conrad

    Conrad’s influence on later novelists has been profound both because of his masterly technical innovations and because of the vision of humanity expressed through them. He is the novelist of man in extreme situations. “Those who read me,” he wrote in his preface to A Personal Record, “know my conviction that the world, the temporal world, rests on a few very simple ideas; so simple that they must be as old as the hills. It rests, notably, among others, on the idea of Fidelity.” For Conrad fidelity is the barrier man erects against nothingness, against corruption, against the evil that is all about him, insidious, waiting to engulf him, and that in some sense is within him unacknowledged. But what happens when fidelity is submerged, the barrier broken down, and the evil without is acknowledged by the evil within? At his greatest, that is Conrad’s theme. Feminist and postcolonialist readings of Modernist works have focused on Conrad and have confirmed his centrality to Modernism and to the general understanding of it.

  • Jun'ichirō Tanizaki (谷崎 潤一郎) was a Japanese author, and one of the major writers of modern Japanese literature, perhaps the most popular Japanese novelist after Natsume Sōseki. Some of his works present a rather shocking world of sexuality and destructive erotic obsessions; others, less sensational, subtly portray the dynamics of family life in the context of the rapid changes in 20th-century Japanese society. Frequently his stories are narrated in the context of a search for cultural identity in which constructions of "the West" and "Japanese tradition" are juxtaposed. The results are complex, ironic, demure, and provocative.

  • Louisa May Alcott, (born November 29, 1832, GermantownPennsylvania, U.S.—died March 6, 1888, Boston, Massachusetts), American author known for her children’s books, especially the classic Little Women (1868–69).

    A daughter of the transcendentalist Bronson Alcott, Louisa spent most of her life in Boston and ConcordMassachusetts, where she grew up in the company of Ralph Waldo EmersonTheodore Parker, and Henry David Thoreau. Her education was largely under the direction of her father, for a time at his innovative Temple School in Boston and, later, at home. Alcott realized early that her father was too impractical to provide for his wife and four daughters; after the failure of Fruitlands, a utopian community that he had founded, Louisa Alcott’s lifelong concern for the welfare of her family began. She taught briefly, worked as a domestic, and finally began to write.

    Alcott produced potboilers at first and many of her stories—notably those signed “A.M. Barnard”—were lurid and violent tales. The latter works are unusual in their depictions of women as strong, self-reliant, and imaginative. She volunteered as a nurse after the American Civil War began, but she contracted typhoid from unsanitary hospital conditions and was sent home. She was never completely well again. The publication of her letters in book form, Hospital Sketches (1863), brought her the first taste of fame.

    Alcott’s stories began to appear in The Atlantic Monthly (later The Atlantic), and, because family needs were pressing, she wrote the autobiographical Little Women (1868–69), which was an immediate success. Based on her recollections of her own childhood, Little Women describes the domestic adventures of a New England family of modest means but optimistic outlook. The book traces the differing personalities and fortunes of four sisters (Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy March) as they emerge from childhood and encounter the vicissitudes of employment, society, and marriage. Little Women created a realistic but wholesome picture of family life with which younger readers could easily identify. In 1869 Alcott was able to write in her journal: “Paid up all the debts…thank the Lord!” She followed Little Women’s success with two sequels, Little Men: Life at Plumfield with Jo’s Boys (1871) and Jo’s Boys and How They Turned Out (1886). Little Women also inspired numerous movies, including the 1933 classic, starring Katharine Hepburn as Jo, and Greta Gerwig’s 2019 adaptation. Alcott also wrote other domestic narratives drawn from her early experiences: An Old-Fashioned Girl (1870); Aunt Jo’s Scrap Bag, 6 vol. (1872–82); Eight Cousins (1875); and Rose in Bloom (1876).

    Except for a European tour in 1870 and a few briefer trips to New York, she spent the last two decades of her life in Boston and Concord, caring for her mother, who died in 1877 after a lengthy illness, and her increasingly helpless father. Late in life she adopted her namesake, Louisa May Nieriker, daughter of her late sister, May. Her own health, never robust, also declined, and she died in Boston two days after her father’s death.

    Alcott’s books for younger readers have remained steadfastly popular, and the republication of some of her lesser-known works late in the 20th century aroused renewed critical interest in her adult fiction. A Modern Mephistopheles, which was published pseudonymously in 1877 and republished in 1987, is a Gothic novel about a failed poet who makes a Faustian bargain with his tempter. Work: A Story of Experience (1873), based on Alcott’s own struggles, tells the story of a poor girl trying to support herself by a succession of menial jobs. The Gothic tales and thrillers that Alcott published pseudonymously between 1863 and 1869 were collected and republished as Behind a Mask (1975) and Plots and Counterplots (1976), and an unpublished Gothic novel written in 1866, A Long Fatal Love Chase, was published in 1995.

  • Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, née Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, (born August 30, 1797, London, England—died February 1, 1851, London), English Romantic novelist best known as the author of Frankenstein.

    The only daughter of William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft, she met the young poet Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1812 and eloped with him to France in July 1814. The couple were married in 1816, after Shelley’s first wife had committed suicide. After her husband’s death in 1822, she returned to England and devoted herself to publicizing Shelley’s writings and to educating their only surviving child, Percy Florence Shelley. She published her late husband’s Posthumous Poems (1824); she also edited his Poetical Works (1839), with long and invaluable notes, and his prose works. Her Journal is a rich source of Shelley biography, and her letters are an indispensable adjunct.

    Mary Shelley’s best-known book is Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818, revised 1831), a text that is part Gothic novel and part philosophical novel; it is also often considered an early example of science fiction. It narrates the dreadful consequences that arise after a scientist has artificially created a human being. (The man-made monster in this novel inspired a similar creature in numerous American horror films.) She wrote several other novels, including Valperga (1823), The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck (1830), Lodore (1835), and Falkner (1837); The Last Man (1826), an account of the future destruction of the human race by a plague, is often ranked as her best work. Her travel book History of a Six Weeks’ Tour (1817) recounts the continental tour she and Shelley took in 1814 following their elopement and then recounts their summer near Geneva in 1816.

  • ماساشي كيشيموتو (باليابانية 岸本 斉史) كاتب ومؤلف مانغا ياباني ولد في 8 نوفمبر 1974 في ولاية أوكاياما في جزيرة هونشو في اليابان. أهم مؤلفاته أنيمي ومانغا ناروتو التي تنشر أسبوعيا في مجلة شونن جمب اليابانية. صنع لنفسه صورة أحد أفضل كاتبي قصص المانجا في وقت قصير، وأصبح أحد أكثر كتاب المانجا مبيعات على مدى التاريخ. كيشى هو الأخ الأكبر من توأمين، اخيه الأصغر مؤلف مانجا أيضا اسمه سيشى كيشيموتو وهو مؤلف مانجا satan 666 وأيضا blazer drive. عندما كان صغيرا اعجب ماساشي بأنيمي يدعى «دورايمون- عبقور» وكل اصحابه تابعوه كذلك وكان الجميع يحاول رسم الشخصيات إلا أن ماساشى كان الأكثر براعة بينهم وكان يريهم الأخطاء في رسوماتهم، وعندما يتذكر ذلك يقول «لا بد أنني كنت مزعج جدا». بعد ذلك رأى مانجا اجنحة الكاندام وانتقل إلى رسم شخصياتها.

  • Maurice Leblanc (1864 - 1941) was a French novelist, best known as the creator of gentleman thief (later detective) Arsène Lupin. Leblanc began as a journalist, until he was asked to write a short story filler, and created, more gallant and dashing than English counterpart Sherlock Holmes.

  • Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, social theorist and historian of ideas. He held a chair at the Collège de France with the title "History of Systems of Thought," but before he was Professor at University of Tunis, Tunisia, and then Professor at University Paris VIII. He lectured at several different Universities over the world as at the University at Buffalo, the University of California, Berkeley and University of São Paulo, University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  • Miguel de Cervantes y Cortinas, later Saavedra was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His novel Don Quixote is often considered his magnum opus, as well as the first modern novel. It is assumed that Miguel de Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares. His father was Rodrigo de Cervantes, a surgeon of cordoban descent. Little is known of his mother Leonor de Cortinas, except that she was a native of Arganda del Rey. In 1569, Cervantes moved to Italy, where he served as a valet to Giulio Acquaviva, a wealthy priest who was elevated to cardinal the next year. By then, Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Algerian corsairs. He was then released on ransom from his captors by his parents and the Trinitarians, a Catholic religious order. He subsequently returned to his family in Madrid. In Esquivias (Province of Toledo), on 12 December 1584, he married the much younger Catalina de Salazar y Palacios (Toledo, Esquivias –, 31 October 1626), daughter of Fernando de Salazar y Vozmediano and Catalina de Palacios. Her uncle Alonso de Quesada y Salazar is said to have inspired the character of Don Quixote. During the next 20 years Cervantes led a nomadic existence, working as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada and as a tax collector. He suffered a bankruptcy and was imprisoned at least twice (1597 and 1602) for irregularities in his accounts. Between 1596 and 1600, he lived primarily in Seville. In 1606, Cervantes settled in Madrid, where he remained for the rest of his life. Cervantes died in Madrid on April 23, 1616.

  • Napoleon Hill was an American author in the area of the new thought movement who was one of the earliest producers of the modern genre of personal-success literature. He is widely considered to be one of the great writers on success. His most famous work, Think and Grow Rich (1937), is one of the best-selling books of all time (at the time of Hill's death in 1970, Think and Grow Rich had sold 20 million copies). Hill's works examined the power of personal beliefs, and the role they play in personal success. He became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933 to 1936. "What the mind of man can conceive and believe, it can achieve" is one of Hill's hallmark expressions. How achievement actually occurs, and a formula for it that puts success in reach of the average person, were the focal points of Hill's books.

  • Nathan C. Schaeffer was born in Maxatawny, Pennsylvania on February 3, 1849. In 1867 he graduated from Franklin and Marshall College, after which he studied divinity at the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church, and finished his education at the universities of BerlinTübingen and Leipzig. From 1875 to 1877, Schaeffer was professor at Franklin and Marshall College and from 1877 to 1893 was principal of the Keystone State Normal School at Kutztown, Pennsylvania. In 1893 he became superintendent of public instruction for Pennsylvania, a post he held until his death. He also served as president of the Pennsylvania board of education and was president of a commission that prepared a new school code for the state, and was a member of the Simplified Spelling Board.

    In 1902, he became a member of the board of trustees for Franklin and Marshall College. He was offered the presidency of the college, but declined it. In 1879 he received the degree of doctor of philosophy and in 1904 received the degrees of doctor of divinity and doctor of laws from Dickinson College.

    He died at his home in Lancaster, Pennsylvania on March 15, 1919

  • Natsume Sōseki (夏目 漱石), born Natsume Kinnosuke (夏目 金之助), was a Japanese novelist. He is best known for his novels Kokoro, Botchan, I Am a Cat and his unfinished work Light and Darkness. He was also a scholar of British literature and composer of haiku, kanshi, and fairy tales. From 1984 until 2004, his portrait appeared on the front of the Japanese 1000 yen note. In Japan, he is often considered the greatest writer in modern Japanese history. He has had a profound effect on almost all important Japanese writers since.

  • Dr. Norman Vincent Peale (1898–1993) was a minister and author (most notably of The Power of Positive Thinking) and a progenitor of the theory of "positive thinking". Peale was born in Bowersville, Ohio. He graduated from Bellefontaine High School, Bellefontaine, Ohio. He has earned degrees at Ohio Wesleyan University (where he became a brother of the Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta) and Boston University School of Theology. Raised as a Methodist and ordained as a Methodist minister in 1922, Peale changed his religious affiliation to the Reformed Church in America in 1932 and began a 52-year tenure as pastor of Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan. During that time the church's membership grew from 600 to over 5000, and he became one of New York City's most famous preachers.

  • إييتشيرو أودا (尾田栄一郎 أودا إييتشيرو) هو مانغاكا ياباني ولد في 1 يناير 1975 في كوماموتو والمعروف أيضاً باسم مُنشئ المانغا «ون بيس» الأكثر مبيعاً في اليابان وكذلك العالم. مانغا ون بيس حطمت الرقم القياسي كأكثر سلسلة قصص مصورة وأكثر سلسلة مانغا تم بيعها من مؤلف واحدد؛ حيث وصلت مبيعاتها إلى أكثر من 500 مليون نسخة. عندما كان في صِغره تأثر أودا بأكيرا تورياما كاتب المانغا الشهيرة «دراغون بول» عندئذ قرر أودا ان يصبح مانغاكا. وهو دائما ما يذكر أنه كان مولعا بحياة القراصنة مما كان يراه في التلفزيون والأنمي خصوصا الأنمي Vicky The Viking. في صغره ألّف أودا مانغا باسم الرجل الباندا وقد صرح بنفسه أنه يجرى تعديلات عليها لتناسب الواقع ثم سيعرضها قريبا من باب الاعتزاز بالطفولة. في عامه السابع عشر ألّف أودا Wanted !! وفاز بالعديد من الجوائز بما في ذلك المركز الثاني لمسابقة تازوكا، وهذا ما منحه عملا في مجلة شونن جامب وكان عمله التقليدي مساعدا لشينوبو كايتاني كان ذلك قبل أن ينتقل إلى محطة توكوشيرو، مما أكسبه نفوذا غير متوقع في حياته الفنية.

  • Osamu DAZAI (native name: 太宰治, real name Shūji Tsushima) was a Japanese author who is considered one of the foremost fiction writers of 20th-century Japan. A number of his most popular works, such as Shayō (The Setting Sun) and Ningen Shikkaku (No Longer Human), are considered modern-day classics in Japan. With a semi-autobiographical style and transparency into his personal life, Dazai’s stories have intrigued the minds of many readers. His books also bring about awareness to a number of important topics such as human nature, mental illness, social relationships, and postwar Japan.

  • Oscar Wilde, in full Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde, (born October 16, 1854, Dublin, Ireland—died November 30, 1900, Paris, France), Irish wit, poet, and dramatist whose reputation rests on his only novelThe Picture of Dorian Gray (1891), and on his comic masterpieces Lady Windermere’s Fan (1892) and The Importance of Being Earnest (1895). He was a spokesman for the late 19th-century Aesthetic movement in England, which advocated art for art’s sake, and he was the object of celebrated civil and criminal suits involving homosexuality and ending in his imprisonment (1895–97).

    Wilde was born of professional and literary parents. His father, Sir William Wilde, was Ireland’s leading ear and eye surgeon, who also published books on archaeology, folklore, and the satirist Jonathan Swift. His mother, who wrote under the name Speranza, was a revolutionary poet and an authority on Celtic myth and folklore.

  • روبرت لويس ستيفنسن" (1850-1894) كاتب اسكتلندي ومؤلف متعدد الموضوعات، قامت شهرته على روايتين شعبيتين: الأولى رواية مغامرات (جزيرة الكنز 1883) والأخرى خيالية (الحالة الغريبة لـ دكتور "جيكل" والسيد "هايد" 1886). ولد "روبرت لويس ستيفنسن" في "إديمبرج" بـ"اسكتلندا" وهو الابن الوحيد لأبيه الذي كان يعمل مهندساً، لذا فرضت عليه التقاليد الأسرية بدأ تعلم الهندسة أولاً في مسقط رأسه، لكنه تركها ودرس القانون، وبعد أن سجل اسمه في سجل المحامين هجر القانون من أجل الأدب، ذلك المجال الذي كان يشغف به حباً منذ سنوات شبابه الأولى التي غذاها بالقراءات، وحيث أصبح مشهوراً في جميع جوانبه المختلفة: شعر، قصص رحلات، رواية مغامرات. ولأنه أصيب بالسل بدأ "ستفنسون" عدة رحلات بالخارج وخصوصاً فرنسا بحثاً عن المناخ المتناغم مع صحته. في عام 1876 وفي أثناء إحدى رحلاته شغف حباً بـ"فاني أوسبورن"، رسامة أمريكية منفصلة عن زوجها (وكانت هذه بمثابة فضيحة كبيرة لأسرته). في عام 1879 لحق بها في الولايات المتحدة بـ "كاليفورنيا" (العشق المهاجر 1880)، وتزوج بها هناك في نفس العام بعد أن تم طلاقها. عاش الزوجان بعض الوقت في دافوس بـ"سويسرا" قبل أن يقوما في عام 1889 برحلة بحرية في المحيط الهادي الجنوبي. هذه الرحلة قادتهما إلى جزر "ساموا" حيث استقرا فيها بشكل نهائي. ودفن بها ستفنسون على قمة الجبل بالقرب من منزله بـ"فايليما" على جزيرة أوبولو.

  • Sun Tzu (/sn ˈdz, sn ˈs/ soon DZOO, soon SOOtraditional Chinese孫子simplified Chinese孙子pinyinSūnzǐ) was a Chinese military general, strategist, philosopher, and writer who lived during the Eastern Zhou period of 771 to 256 BCE. Sun Tzu is traditionally credited as the author of The Art of War, an influential work of military strategy that has affected both Western and East Asian philosophy and military thinking. Sun Tzu is revered in Chinese and East Asian culture as a legendary historical and military figure. His birth name was Sun Wu (traditional Chinese孫武simplified Chinese孙武) and he was known outside of his family by his courtesy name Changqing (Chinese長卿).[citation needed] The name Sun Tzu by which he is more popularly known is an honorific which means "Master Sun".

    Sun Tzu's historicity is uncertain. The Han dynasty historian Sima Qian and other traditional Chinese historians placed him as a minister to King Helü of Wu and dated his lifetime to 544–496 BCE. Modern scholars accepting his historicity place the extant text of The Art of War in the later Warring States period of 475 to 221 BCE – based on its style of composition and its descriptions of warfare. Traditional accounts state that the general's descendant Sun Bin wrote a treatise on military tactics, also titled The Art of War. Since both Sun Wu and Sun Bin were referred to as "Sun Tzu" in classical Chinese texts, some historians believed them identical, prior to the rediscovery of Sun Bin's treatise in 1972.

    Sun Tzu's work has been praised and employed in East Asian warfare since its composition. During the twentieth century, The Art of War grew in popularity and saw practical use in the Western world as well. It remains influential in many contemporary competitive endeavors across the modern world beyond military strategy and warfare, including espionage, culture, politics, business, and sports.

  • Wallace Delois Wattles was an American author. A New Thought writer, he remains personally somewhat obscure, but his writing has been widely quoted and remains in print in the New Thought and self-help movements. Wattles' best known work is a 1910 book called The Science of Getting Rich in which he explained how to become wealthy. He studied the writings of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Ralph Waldo Emerson and recommended the study of their books to his readers who wished to understand what he characterized as "the monistic theory of the cosmos". Through his personal study and experimentation Wattles claimed to have discovered the truth of New Thought principles and put them into practice in his own life. He wrote books outlining these principles and practices, giving them titles that described their content, such as Health Through New Thought and Fasting and The Science of Being Great. His daughter Florence recalled that "he lived every page" of his books.

  • William Shakespeare, Shakespeare also spelled Shakspere, byname Bard of Avon or Swan of Avon, (baptized April 26, 1564, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England—died April 23, 1616, Stratford-upon-Avon), English poetdramatist, and actor often called the English national poet and considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time.

    Shakespeare occupies a position unique in world literature. Other poets, such as Homer and Dante, and novelists, such as Leo Tolstoy and Charles Dickens, have transcended national barriers, but no writer’s living reputation can compare to that of Shakespeare, whose plays, written in the late 16th and early 17th centuries for a small repertory theatre, are now performed and read more often and in more countries than ever before. The prophecy of his great contemporary, the poet and dramatist Ben Jonson, that Shakespeare .“was not of an age, but for all time,” has been fulfilled

    It may be audacious even to attempt a definition of his greatness, but it is not so difficult to describe the gifts that enabled him to create imaginative visions of pathos and mirth that, whether read or witnessed in the theatre, fill the mind and linger there. He is a writer of great intellectual rapidity, perceptiveness, and poetic power. Other writers have had these qualities, but with Shakespeare the keenness of mind was applied not to abstruse or remote subjects but to human beings and their complete range of emotions and conflicts. Other writers have applied their keenness of mind in this way, but Shakespeare is astonishingly clever with words and images, so that his mental energy, when applied to intelligible human situations, finds full and memorable expression, convincing and imaginatively stimulating. As if this were not enough, the art form into which his creative energies went was not remote and bookish but involved the vivid stage impersonation of human beings, commanding sympathy and inviting vicarious participation. Thus, Shakespeare’s merits can survive translation into other languages and into cultures remote from that of Elizabethan England.

  • Yasmine Lasheen is a passionate writer who started since 2000 writing short stories,quotes and poemes in different magazines, then in 2015 she created her own facebook and instgram platforms "Glow of the heart" sharing thousands of quotes and ideas to audience all over the world.

  • يوشيهيرو توغاشي هو مانغاكا ياباني ولد في 26 أبريل 1966 في محافظة ياماغاتا. بدأ برسم المانغا في سن مبكرة. عندما ارتاد الجامعة اثارت موهبته الناشر " Shueisha ". قام بتأليف العديد من مسلسلات المانغا من أنواع مختلفة خلال الثلاث عقود الفائتة، ربما اشتهر بكتابة مسلسلي المانغا "YuYu Hakusho " و "Hunter × Hunter "

  • لواء مهندس م/ أحمد أمين أبوبيه أديب مصري معاصر رواية الله نور القلوب هي رواية من وحي السيرة، وهي أولى الأعمال المنشورة ورقيا له

  • أحمد التيمومي، من مواليد مدينة طهطا في محافظة سوهاج، درس القانون في جامعة أسيوط ثم بدأ عمله الصحفي في قناة الحياة مع الإعلامي الشهير أحمد شوبير، تنقل بين عدد من القنوات أبرزها مودرن سبورت- سي بي سي- النيل للرياضة- صدى البلد - أون تايم سبورتس. عمل في عدد من المواقع الرياضية أهمها كورابيا - يلا كورة – كووورة.. مراسل مجلة حوار سبورت العراقية وعضو اللجنة الإعلامية لبطولة أفريقيا تحت 23 سنة 2019.

  • أحمد الحو صانع محتوى وأديب مصري معاصر صاحب صفحة "من الجحيم from the hell" على فيسبوك

  • الاسم: أحمد ممدوح طه الكاشف (أحمد الكاشف) الجنسية: مصري محل الميلاد: الجيزة تاريخ الميلاد: 29 / 5 / 1980 المؤهلات الدراسية: - بكالوريوس الهندسة المدنية من كلية الهندسة جامعة القاهرة عام 2003 - الثانوية العامة من مدرسة ليسيه الزمالك عام 1997 اللغات: - العربية - الفرنسية - الإنجليزية الأعمال المنشورة: - كتاب الرقص بين السماء والأرض، صدر عن دار فنون عام 2019م - رواية ميجيل جارسيا خافيير، صدرت عن دار ببلومانيا عام 2022م. النشاطات: - مهندس يعمل في مجال الهندسة المدنية - القراءة - صيد الأسماك

  • أحمد عماد كاتب وروائي مصري من مواليد محافظة القاهرة له العديد من المقالات الصحفية والأدبية في المجلات والجرائد المحلية والدولية وهو صاحب الرواية المثيرة للجدل إنسانفرينيا. أعمال سابقة: مخطوطة أبيلا "زمكان ما" إنسانفرينيا غراب سليمان

  • كاتب مصرى واستشارى نَفْسى وأُسَرى، حاصل على دبلومة فى الصحة النفسية والإرشاد الأُسَرى والتربية الإيجابية طويلة المدى، درس المحاماة، ومهتم بمجال التنمية البشرية ذات الطابع الإسلامى، وله عدد من المؤلفات الأخرى المنشورة ورقيًا ( رسايل ربانية، نفحات من الرحمن فى تدبر القرآن، زحمة أمنيات، إفشل بنجاح )، وقد شاركت كتبه فى معارض دولية للكتب داخل مصر وفى بعض الدول العربية مثل عمان والسعودية.

  • كاتب روائي صدرت له ستة أعمال روائية, وكاتب محتوى خاص بعلوم الماورائيات والجريمة لدى الكثير من قنوات الراديو واليوتيوب وأشهرهم قناتي أصل الحكاية وقضية رأي عام, مُحرر لدى جريدة رؤية مصرية وتم تكريمه عدة مرات من الجريدة ومحرر لدى جريدة الحياة نيوز وجريدة أخبارنا في مصر ويقدم عليهم محتوى قصصي وبعض المقالات بصورة يومية, وكاتب لدى موقع الرُعب الشهير "كابوس" وغيره من المنتديات ومواقع الماورائيات.. كانت له لقاءات تلفزيونية على قناتي الحدث اليوم والقاهرة اليوم- وبعض الحوارات التي نُشرت على موقع الأمنيات برس وجريدة رؤية مصرية وتم استضافته على أكثر من جروب ثقافي لعمل بعض الندوات الأدبية لايف وكتابة وتم توثيق اسمه وأعماله كلها على موقع البحث جوجل.. صُدرت له رواية "إنيَّ رأيت" في معرض القاهرة للكتاب 2019 وكانت من ضمن الاصدارات الأعلى مبيعًا لدى دار شهرزاد للنشر والتوزيع وفي نفس المعرض صُدرت له قصة بعنوان "رفات مظلوم" في كتاب مجمع تحت عنوان "يحدث في الجحيم" لدى دار الكِنزي للنشر والتوزيع وفي صيف 2020 صُدرت له أشهر رواياته الأدبية رواية "إن الله سيبطله" والتي حققت نجاحًا كبيرًا وكانت من ضمن الروايات الأعلى بحثًا لدى محرك البحث جوجل والأعلى مبيعًا لدى دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع في المعرض الذي يليه, وتم صدور طبعتين منها, على أن تصدر الطبعة الثالثة في القريب العاجل مع دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع.. وفي صيف 2020 صدرت له عدد أول من سلسلة "مائدة الفزع" تحت عنوان "حتى زرتم المقابر" وقد حققت الطبعة الأولى نجاحًا وتمت طباعة الكتاب كطبعة ثانية مع نفس الدار.. وفي معرض الكتاب 2021 صدر له العدد الثاني من سلسلة "مائدة الفزع" تحت عنوان "الميتة والدم" وقد بيع من الكتاب طبعتين وحقق نجاحا ملموسا مع الكُتب الأخرى وفي معرض الكتاب 2021 تمت طباعة رواية "إني رأيت" كطبعة ثانية مع دار ببلومانيا وصُدر للكاتب أيضًا العدد الثالث من سلسلة "مائدة الفزع" تحت عنوان "لعلهم يرجعون" وقد تصدرت ثلاثية مائدة الفزع مبيعات دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع وتم توثيق هذا على موقع القاهرة 24 وفي صيف 2020 صدرت للكاتب قصة بعنوان "غروب الشمس" في كتاب مجمع بعنوان "نصفي الآخر" لدى دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع.. وفي معرض ٢٠٢٣ صدرت له رواية هل من مزيد "النار تتحدث" وقد تصدرت مبيعات الدار في نفس المعرض ونفذت منها الطبعة الأولى.. وهناك الكثير من الأعمال الالكترونية للكاتب المنشورة على الكثير من المواقع منها: نساء مخيفات نساء مخيفات 2 السياف أنين الحب والحياة همسات الشيطان وللكاتب صفحة شخصية يقوم بالنشر عليها بصورة يومية لبعض القصص الغريبة الخاصة بالماورائيات والجريمة والتي تخطت الألف قصة والكثير من المقالات ووجهات النظر والخواطر وله الكثير من المتابعين وقد وصل عددهم إلى 30 ألف متابع وصديق على صفحته على فيس بوك, وله الكثير من مجموعات الواتس أب الأدبية والتي تتداول قصصه ومقالاته على نطاق واسع, وله الكثير من المقالات على بعض المواقع والجرايد الالكترونية والمنتديات..

  • أديب عراقي معاصر  

  • أمل الروبي.. شاعرة وكاتبة ورسامة مصرية أمريكية صدر لها حتى الآن: ديوان حب ممنوع 2019 رواية ليلى والحب المستحيل (بجزأيها الأول والثاني2020-2021) ديوان لو كنت أعرف2021 - رواية أحيانا نولد مرتين2021 - رواية هي وقاهر النساء 2022

  • الكاتب: إيليَّا مقار   المهنة:                    رئيس تنفيذي بهيئة تنمية دولية صفحة الفيس بوك:     https://www.facebook.com/eleya.maquar/ صفحة LinkedIn:      https://www.linkedin.com/in/elia-makar-05776413/ الدراسة:                  ماجستير إدارة أعمال- جامعة إدنبرا .                            ليسانس في الأدب الإنجليزي- جامعة القاهرة العنوان الحالي           مدينة وستمنستر، ولاية كاليفورنيا، الولايات المتحدة الجنسية                  مصري، أمريكي رقم الهاتف:              0017146865274   الكتاب:           كتابة إبداعية- مجموعة قصصية الكاتب:          إيليا مقار مقدمة عن الكاتب: اعتبر نفسي محظوظًا لأن الحياة منحتني روافد شديدة الغنى صاغت ثقافتي وقيمي عبر السنوات. أتاحت لي ظروف عملي السفر والحياة في أكثر من أربعين دولة، لأُدرك أن الإنسان هو الإنسان، يستمد جماله وفرادته من عدم كماله وبحثه عن السعادة والاكتمال، وفي رحلته تلك، ينتج قصص فريدة لا تحتاج إلا لمن يلاحظ ويتخيل ويصوغ بينما يشاهد الحياة من المقعد الخلفي.   بدا شغفي بالقراءة في سن صغيرة، فقد حصلت على جوائز المكتبة في المرحلة الإعدادية، بينما رشحني أستاذ اللغة العربية في الصف الثالث الثانوي لتصفيات أوائل الطلبة عن المدرسة لتميزي في اللغة العربية. لى عدد من القصص القصيرى التي نشرتها عبر سنوات منها "قصة لم يكتبها إبسن" والتي نشرتها جريدة اليوم السابع لي عام 2018. تشرفت بأن قام الكاتب الكبير الدكتور علاء الأسواني بمناقشة مجموعتي القصصية عبر جلسات كتابة إبداعية قمنا بها في الولايات المتحدة خلال عام 2021.

  • إييتشيرو أودا (尾田栄一郎 أودا إييتشيرو) هو مانغاكا ياباني ولد في 1 يناير 1975 في كوماموتو. والمعروف أيضاً باسم مُنشئ المانغا «ون بيس» الأكثر مبيعاً في اليابان وكذلك العالم. مانغا ون بيس حطمت الرقم القياسي كأكثر سلسلة قصص مصورة وأكثر سلسلة مانغا تم بيعها من مؤلف واحدد؛ حيث وصلت مبيعاتها إلى أكثر من 500 مليون نسخة. عندما كان في صِغره تأثر أودا بأكيرا تورياما كاتب المانغا الشهيرة «دراغون بول» عندئذ قرر أودا ان يصبح مانغاكا. وهو دائما ما يذكر أنه كان مولعا بحياة القراصنة مما كان يراه في التلفزيون والأنمي خصوصا الأنمي Vicky The Viking. في صغره ألّف أودا مانغا باسم الرجل الباندا وقد صرح بنفسه أنه يجرى تعديلات عليها لتناسب الواقع ثم سيعرضها قريبا من باب الاعتزاز بالطفولة. في عامه السابع عشر ألّف أودا Wanted !! وفاز بالعديد من الجوائز بما في ذلك المركز الثاني لمسابقة تازوكا، وهذا ما منحه عملا في مجلة شونن جامب وكان عمله التقليدي مساعدا لشينوبو كايتاني كان ذلك قبل أن ينتقل إلى محطة توكوشيرو، مما أكسبه نفوذا غير متوقع في حياته الفنية. في عامه التاسع عشر وبعد انتقاله لأماكن عدة – كان أهمها العمل مساعدا لنوبوهيرو واتاسوكي - فاز بالجائزة التأهيلية للفنانين الجدد. وقد ائتمنه واتاسوكى لعمل شخصية هانجو كاماترى التي تظهر في رونووى كينشين. وطوال هذه المدة قام أودا بعملين للقراصنة تحت عنوان Romance Down. وفي نفس الوقت كان قد رسم شخصية مونكي دي لوفي ولكن ليس بشكلها الظاهر في الأنمي (أي أنه عدّلها بعد ذلك). وفيما بين العامين 1996 و1997 كان قد انتهى من القصة ومن الرسم الحالي للوفي على أنه سيكون بطل القصة وقد صمم ثلاثة من رفاق لوفى بنفس طباع أصدقاءه الثلاثة المقربين في جامعة هيريوكى تاكى– ولكنه رفض عن الإفصاح بأسماء الثلاثة من الإنمى أو أصدقاؤه. وفي عام 1997 ظهر ون بيس لأول مرة في مجلة شونن جامب وأصبح وحدا من أشهر المانغات في اليابان. وكان أكيرا تورياما مؤلف دراغون بول ودكتور سلامب في مقابلة صحفية له، سئل عن أفضل ثلاثة مانجا محببة إليه بعد مؤلفاته، فرد قائلا: لقد صنع اثنان ما يسمى بنقلة في عالم المانجا وهما تورياما وأودا بعمليهما دراغون بول وون بيس. في البداية كان قرار أودا جعل مانغا ون بيس يبدأ وينتهي خلال خمس سنوات ولكنه سرعان ما غير رأيه عندما وجد مبيعات أول فصل للمانغا قد وصلت إلى أعلى مبيعات لفصل مانجا في اليابان– حينها- وقام بإيقاف المانغا وعدّل على القصة مما جعلها تصل إلى 12 سنة ولم تنتهي حتى الآن ثم استأنف القصة في عام 1999 لتستمر إلى الآن.

  • شاعرة وأديبة جزائرية، تكتب في أدب الأطفال واليافعين، وقصص وروايات في أدب الرعب والفنتازيا.

  • باسل سليم أديب أردني معاصر حاصل على بكالوريوس الآداب واللغة من الجامعة الأردنية مترجم ومعلم للغتين الإنجليزية والإسبانية  

  • باسم المهدي، روائي مصري من مواليد أكتوبر 1987، حصل على ليسانس الحقوق في عام 2009، ويعمل كمحامي حر وعضو اتحاد المحامين العرب. خبرات الكتابة والتأليف: - ورشة تدريبية مع الأساتذة: أ/هشام أبو سعدة، أ/د.مدحت العدل ، أ/احمد مراد و أ/عمر طاهر لكتابة السيناريو - كتابة فيلم "روح محب" مقرر انتاجه من شركة سكوير برودكشن. - كتابة فيلم "رسالة مسجلة" مقرر انتاجه من شركة سكوير برودكشن. - المشاركة في إنتاج فيلم "نهاية الخدمة" تم الانتهاء من التصوير و مقرر عرضه على احدى المنصات.

  • محمد بن محمد بن حسين بهاء الدين البلخي؛ (1207 - 1273) المعروف بمولانا جلال الدین الرومي. هو أديب وفقيه ومنظِّر وقانوني صوفي. عرف بالرومي لأنه قضى معظم حياته لدى سلاجقة الروم في تركيا الحالية. وما كاد يبلغ الثالثة من عمره حتى انتقل مع أبيه إلى "بغداد" سنة 1210م على إثر خلاف بين أبيه والوالي "محمد قطب الدين خوارزم شاه". وفي بغداد نزل أبوه في المدرسة المستنصرية، ولكنه لم يستقر بها طويلاً؛ إذ قام برحلة واسعة زار خلالها دمشق ومكة و"ملسطية" و"أرزبخان" و"لارند"، ثم استقر آخر الأمر في قونية في عام 632 هـ / 1226م حيث وجد الحماية والرعاية في كنف الأمير السلجوقي "علاء الدين قبقباذ"، واختير للتدريس في أربع مدارس بـ"قونية" حتى توفي سنة 628 هـ / 1231م، فخلفه ابنه "جلال الدين" في التدريس بتلك المدارس.

    وحين وفاته في عام 1273م، دفن في قونية وأصبح مدفنه مزارا إلى يومنا. وبعد مماته، قام أتباعه وإبنه سلطان ولد بتأسيس الطريقة المولوية الصوفية والتي اشتهرت بدراويشها ورقصتهم الروحية الدائرية (المولوية) التي عرفت بالسمع والرقصة المميزة.

    كانت ولادته ولغته الأم تدلان على أصول وثقافة أساسية فارسية. وكتبت كل أعماله باللغة الفارسية الجديدة والتي تطورت بعهد النهضة الفارسية في مناطق سيستان وخرسان وبلاد ما وراء النهر والتي حلت مكان في القرن الحادي عشر ميلادي. وتمت ترجمة أعماله إلى لغات عديدة ومنها، والتركية واللغات الغربية. وكان تأثيره كبير على ثقافة الفرس وثقافات الأوردو والبنغالية والتركية. ووصفته البي بي سي بأكثر الشعراء شعبية في أميركا عادة، تصنف أعمال الرومي إلى عدة تصانيف وهي: الرباعيات، ديوان الغزل، مجلدات المثنوي الستة، المحاضر أو الخطب، الرسائل والموعظ الستة الشبه مفقودة.

    شعره: -مثنويه المعاني: وهي قصائد باللغة الفارسية والذي يسميه بعض المتصوفة بالكتاب المقدس الفارسي. ويعتبره كثيرون من أهم الكتب الصوفية الشعرية. -الديوان الكبير أو ديوان شمس التبريزي والذي كتبه في ذكرى موت صاحبه العزيز وملهمه في طريق التصوف والشعر. وكتبب فيه أكثر من أربعين بيت شعر وخمسين قصيدة نثرية.

    - الرباعيات: وهي منظومة أحصاها العالم الإيراني المعاصر بديع الزمان فوزانفر، كما وردت في طبعة إسطنبول، فوجد أنها تبلغ 1659 رباعياً، أي 3318 بيتاً

    نثره: -كتاب فيه ما فيه: وهو كتاب يحتوى على واحد وسبعون محاضرة القاها الرومي في صحبه في مناسبات مختلفة. وهو من تجميع مريديه وليس من كتابته هو.

    -المجالس السبعة: وهو تجميع لمواعظ ومحاضرات ألقاها في سبع مناسبات مختلفة تتناول مواضيع عن القرآن والحديث الشريف. وتتضمن أشعار فريد الدين عطار وسنائي وللرومي نفسه. وقد قدم هذه المحاضرات بطلب من أشراف القوم مثل صلاح الدين زغرب.

    -الرسائل: وهي رسائل كتبها بالفارسية إلى مريديه ومعارفه ورجال دولة وتأثير. وهي تدل على اهتمام الرومي وانشغاله بمعارف ومريديه وما أصبح له من تأثير كبير.

  • جمال الدين جلال سليمان كاتب مصري من مواليد يناير عام 1984 بمحافظة سوهاج جنوب مصر. حصل على شهادة البكالوريوس في الكيمياء من كلية العلوم بجامعة سوهاج عام 2004 دبلومة في الطب والشرعي والسموم من جامعة المنصورة عام2013 . باحث ماجستير في معهد بحوث الهندسة الوراثية والتكنولوجيا الحيويةبجامعة مدينة السادات. 2013-2015. عضو نقابلة العلميين بمصر من مؤلفاته: المخلب (نصوص وقصص) ثوب الدخان (نصوص وقصص) مرال (رواية) سنوات العتمة (رواية) مالك (مجموعة قصصية)  

  • جمال وهبي كاتب مصري معاصر اشتهر بكتابته للأدب الساخر تعد "وإذ فجأة" مجموعته القصصية الأولى التي نشرها مع دار ببلومانيا

  • من مواليد عام 2006.

    تكتب الخاطرة والقصة القصيرة، شاركت بعمل إبداعي ضمن كتاب "إليك أكتب"، بمعرض القاهرة الدولي للكتاب.

  • جيجي أكوتامي ، هو فنان مانغا ياباني مِن مواليد 26 فبراير 1992 ، في لقاء له صرح أنهُ تأثر بأساليب العديد من المانغاكا مِنهم مؤلفي مانغا ناروتو و بليتش ، و لكنهُ يحاول بقدر الإمكان الأقتراب من أساليب السيد توغاشي مؤلف Hunter x Hunter ، ولد في محافظة إيواتي ظهر لأول مرة في عام 2014 بون-شوت واحد تحت مسمى "Kamishiro Sosa"، عمله الحالي جوجوتسو كايسين تم تسلسله في مجلة الشونين جمب منذ عام 2018.

  • حبيبة محمد عمر، كاتبة مصرية وُلدت بالقاهرة، طالبة بكلية الصيدلة و عضو في الاتحاد المصري للصيادلة، صدر لها رواية ظننتك حلمي بمعرض القاهرة الدولي للكتاب ٢٠٢٢ كما حصلت على المركز الأول في مسابقة الكتابة من جامعة بدر بالقاهرة.

  • أديب مصري معاصر من مدينة الإسكندرية، ويعمل بالنيابة العامة صدر له عام ٢٠٢٢ كتاب تحت تاثير المخدر بمعرض القاهرة الدولي وكان الأكثر مبيعًا وصدر له كتاب عنبر ٩٩٩ وتصدر معرض الإسكندرية الدولي، والجزء الثاني منه بعنوان عصر السوداوية الكونية.

  • روائي وقاص مصري.

    صدر له "قهوة بوتيرو، سباعية العنابر" وأعمال أخرى.

  • حسين دقيل باحث وأكاديمي مصري متخصص في الآثار حاصل على الدكتوراه في الآثار اليونانية والرومانية من جامعة الإسكندرية مدير وحدة دراسات السياحة والآثار بالمعهد المصري للدراسات محاضر بجامعة منيسوتا، فرع تركيا كاتب للعديد من المقالات المتخصصة بالصحف المصرية والعربية والأجنبية نشر العديد من الدراسات الأكاديمية الخاصة بالآثار المصرية مؤلف كتاب حكايات فرعونية مؤلف كتاب مآذن أثرية من مصر العثمانية عضو الاتحاد العام للأثريين العرب عضو جمعية الآثار بالإسكندرية

  • كاتب مصري، ومحلل رياضي يعمل حاليا في مجال الاعلام الرياضي، عضو اللجنة التنفيذية للاتحاد الدولي لتاريخ واحصاء كرة القدم IFFHS

  • المؤلف   - خالد علي محمد المهدوي. - مختص في علم الأحياء الدقيقة بوزارة الصحة- بنغازي- ليبيا. - عضو هيأة تدريس بالكليات والمعاهد العليا الطبية، منذ 2008م. - بكالوريوس صحة مجتمع - 1997م. - ماجستير في المختبرات الطبية - 2007م. - ماجستير في علم الأحياء الدقيقة - 2015م. - طالب دكتوراة في علم الأحياء الدقيقة.   المؤلفات: - علم الأحياء الدقيقة MICROBIOLOGY. - علم الفيروسات .VIROLOGY - علم البكتيريا التشخيصيDIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY . - علم البكتيريا العملي PRACTICAL BACTERIOLOGY  (تحت المراجعة).   الأبحاث المنشورة: -The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Benghazi, Libya.1 IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) - 2016. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Asymptomatic Subjects in Benghazi, Libya.-2 Libyan Journal of Medical Research-LJMR- 2016. 3-Bacteriuria in pregnant and non pregnant women in Benghazi. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS) - 2017.   الإيميل ---  [email protected] الهاتف ---  00218925808290

  • د. خالد علي باحث وأكاديمي ليبي معاصر

  • د. خالد مغازي - طبيب وروائي وكاتب مسرحي مصري ولد بمحافظة الغربية عام ١٩٩٦ ثم انتقل لمدينة العريش بشمال سيناء حيث قضى سنوات دراسته. -التحق بكلية طب قصر العيني بجامعة القاهرة وتخرج فيها عام ٢٠٢٠ - يعمل طبيبًا لأمراض المخ والأعصاب بمستشفيات جامعة القاهرة

  • أستاذ بكلية الطب، جامعة عين شمس، تكتب قصص قصيرة، روايات، زجل وخواطر فلسفية.

  • صيدلانية وكاتبة. صدر لها طبيب طوارئ" مجموعة قصصية"، الوجه الآخر "مجموعة قصصية"، ولها عديد من المشاركات في بعض الكتب المجمّعة، كما نشرت عديد من كتاباتها في جرائد ومجلات ورقية وإليكترونية.

  • دعاء مصطفى الشريف كاتبة وناقدة فنية مصرية معاصرة لها العديد من المقالات والقصص شاركت في : كتاب لور وكتاب ماخطه القلم تعد رواية جريمة منتصف الليل أول عمل منفرد ينشر لها عن طريق دار ببلومانيا، وكان أول ظهور له بمعرض القاهرة الدولي للكتاب 2023.

  • دعاء مهران كاتبة مصرية مؤلفة كتاب حلم المونتيسورى فى كل بيت عربي

  • رامى رجائي نجيب مواليد ١٩٩٤ محافظة القليوبية حاصل على بكالوريوس الصيدلة من جامعة القاهرة تعتبر رواية مدير محطة القطار العمل الأدبي الثاني له  

  • أديب لبناني معاصر نشر له: رواية زهرة المسيح رواية الإنسانية القاتلة رواية سجين

  • رحاب جمال أنور كاتبة صحفية، محرر ديسك، وعضو نقابة الصحفيين. لها مجموعة من الأشعار والخواطر والقصائد النثرية، والمقالات. حصلت على المركز الثالث في مسابقة المقال الأدبي لكلية الآداب جامعة عين شمس عام (2008). أصدر لها ميني ألبوم إنشاد ديني عام 2017. ولدت بمحافظة القاهرة في ديسمبر عام 1987، حصلت على ليسانس الآداب في اللغة العربية بجامعة عين شمس عام 2009، كما حصلت على بكالوريوس في الإعلام من جامعة القاهرة عام 2019.

  • رشـــــــــا هاشــــــم صحفية مستقلة من جنوب مصر، حاصلة على دبلومتين مهنيتين من مركز كمال أدهم بالجامعة الامريكية بالقاهرة، تخرجت من كلية آداب قسم اعلام بجامعة اسيوط. حصلت على عدة تدريبات وجوائز صحفية مرموقة أبرزها جائزة أفضل تحقيق صحفي اليكتروني عن قضايا المرأة من الامم المتحدة للمرأة واكت.

    أيضًا جائزة سيمنس لتميز الصحفي في فئة مستقبل الصناعة، لاقت اعمالها استجابة ومتابعة عالية على أحد المنصات.

  • رغد النابلسي، مواليد ١٩٩٥
    كاتبة روايات وقصص قصيرة ومقالات وخواطر
    صبا الصنوبر، لا أسرار بين الصديقات (روايتان لليافعين)
    امرأة من صوف، أحزان البقعة المباركة، صندوق من اليوسفي، مشاعر بديلة للقرفة.
    بالإضافة لعدة قصص قصيرة في عدة كتب مجمعة.

  • أديبة مغربية معاصرة

  • ريم ياسر، كاتبة وروائية مصرية، تخرجت في كلية الألسن وحصلت على ليسانس اللغة الألمانية عام2017، عملت في المجال الصحفي لسنوات طويلة، وُنشر لها قرابة 200 مقال في الصحف المحلية، تباينت أنواعهم بين المقالات المنشورة ورقيًا وإلكترونيًا، حاصلة على عدد من الشهادات المختلفة في الحقل الإعلامي والأدبي. كما أنها حصلت مؤخرًا على شهادة في الأدب العالمي والأدب المقارن من جامعة هارفارد الأمريكية في عام 2022. نُشرت روايتها الأولى في معرض القاهرة الدولي للكتاب عام 2020 تحت عنوان "المحطة الأخيرة هستيريا" وهي رواية تتبنى تأثير الإضطراب والإكتئاب على النفس البشرية، اختارتها هيئة الكتاب ضمن أقوى 100 عمل في معرض الكتاب لذلك العام، ونُشر التصنيف في جريدتي الفجر الورقية والجمهورية. ثم صدر لها العمل الثاني في عام 2021، كتاب تحت عنوان "يُحكى أن عن رحلات حقيقية من الناس وإليهم"، تناول الكتاب 16 قصة نجاح مجهولة بين الماضي والحاضر، وعمل الكتاب على تسليط الضوء على أناس لم ينالوا من الشهرة نصيبًا رغم استحقاقهم لها. وشاركت أعمالها في العديد من المعارض المحلية والدولية، ونالت كتاباتها إعجاب النقاد والصحفيين والقراء.

  •   سارة علي معاذ ..أديبة مصرية معاصرة ولدت بمدينة منوف بمحافظة المنوفية.. فبراير 1987 حاصلة على بكالوريوس علوم قسم كيمياء جامعة المنوفية عام 2007 ..وحاصلة على دبلوم عام في التربية عام 2019 نشرت أول رواية بعنوان (أحببتها رغما عني) في معرض القاهرة الدولي للكتاب يناير 2022  

  • كاتبة من دولة المغرب، خريجة كلية الحقوق، شعبة القانون الخاص.

    تكتب النثر والنصوص الأدبية القصيرة والقصص.

  • سُلوان البري روائية وقاصَّة، وشاعرة مِصرية تخرَّجَتْ في كلية الحقوق عام ٢٠١٨م، وتمتهن المحاماة. للكاتبة إسهاماتها العديدة في كتابة المقالات والأشعار، في الصحف والمطبوعات المصرية والعربية، وعلى المنصَّات الإلكترونية. حازت المؤلفة مؤخرًا جائزة (كوني) الشعرية، المقدمة من المجلس القومي للمرأة في فئة شعر الفصحىٰ، عن قصيدتها: «مَن مِنَّا امرأةٌ حُرَّة؟!» في ديسمبر عام ٢٠٢١. (جريمة في الحيٍّ الصامٍتْ) هي أولىٰ أعمال الكاتبة التي وجدت طريقها للنور عام ٢٠٢١، ويُعاد نشرها هنا الآن -مُنقَّحةً- في حُلَّةٍ جديدة. وهي الجزء الأول من متتالية اجتماعية تشويقية بعنوان: «سلسلة تحقيقات آل الذهبي»، تلاها الجزء الثاني بعنوان (الحياة المزدوجة للمدعو «ج») الصادرة عام ٢٠٢٢، وثالث الأجزاء (كِردان مكسور)

  • كاتبة مصرية، حاصلة على بكالريوس تجارة، تكتب الخاطرة والقصة القصيرة.

  • أديبة مصرية معاصرة حاصلة على ليسانس آداب وتربية، مواليد محافظة الفيوم نشر لها: مجموعة قصصية بعنوان نون النسوة مجموعة قصصية بعنوان سوق العيش عن دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع بالقاهرة.

  • روائي مصري معاصر

  • صفا هادي عواد، أديبة عراقية معاصرة تخرجت من كلية القانون بجامعة بغداد مهتمة بالقراءة والكتابة والتصوير ، شغوفة بالمطالعة. تعد رواية "رجل واحد لا يكفي" هي أولى الأعمال الورقية المنشورة لها وقد صدرت عن دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع في 2022.  

  • أديب عراقي معاصر نشر له: الطريق إلى الموت الغياب (ثلاثة أجزاء) طفلتي  

  • روائي وقاص شاب, فاز في عدة مسابقات قصصية, نشر له قصة في مجموعة قصصية بعنوان سينما الرعب, وقصة أخرى في مجموعة عابرون الإصدار الخامس, وقصة في مجموعة إلكترونية لدار الأمير بعنوان عبر الأثير, وقصة لنادي القصة ذمار ولكن لم تنشر بعد.

  • كاتب وباحث وقاص عراقي مقيم في الكويت.

    صدر له ثلاث مجموعات قصصية

    محاولات شعرية ونثرية

    محاضر ومدرب بالإدارة ونمو المشاريع

    مقالات في الصحف العراقية والعربية (حول الفكر الاجتماعي

    والقيادة والادارة)

    عضويات ثقافية في منظمات دولية وعربية.

  • أ.د. عصام الدين فتوح أستاذ الأدب الإنجليزي بقسم اللغة الإنجليزية، كلية الآداب، جامعة الإسكندرية (ج.م.ع.)، وقد حصل على درجة الدكتوراة من جامعة ستوني بروك بالولايات المتحدة عام 1993، وعلى درجة الأستاذية عام 2009. وتتركز اهتماماته الحالية على النظرية الأدبية، والمسرح الشيكسبيري، وتاريخ الفكر العربي المعاصر. وقد نشر العديد من الأبحاث العلمية بمجلات علمية مصرية وعالمية، وحضر العديد من المؤتمرات الأكاديمية في العالم العربي والولايات المتحدة، كما أشرف على العديد من رسائل الماجستير والدكتوراة في تخصص الأدب الإنجليزي بجامعتي الإسكندرية وجامعة بيروت العربية. أدبياً وثقافياً، كتب أ.د. عصام فتوح عدداً كبيراً من المقالات باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية، تناولت موضوعات أدبية وفكرية مختلفة، كما أن له ترجمة كاملة لرواية "حكايات حارتنا" للكاتب الكبير نجيب محفوظ، قام بنشرها دار نشر Three Continents Press بالولايات المتحدة، وحصلت على جائزة الترجمة من جامعة كولومبيا عام 1983.

  • الـمـؤلـف فـي سـطـور

    علي رسول جعفر القصير

    باحث ومؤلف ومحقق

    وُلِـد في: العـراق - كربلاء الـمقدسة - 1967 ميلادية

    له آثار كثيرة في التأليف والتحقيق ضمن موضوعات الأدب والأخلاق والحكمة والتاريخ والتراجم والتفسير والسيرة والفقه والعقيدة وعلوم الحديث، ومنها:

    الله الخالق الخلاق

    أصول العلم (كتاب بلا نقط)

    سراج شجرة الأنبياء محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

    سر الحب لرجل كان قبل 1380 سنة - ضمن ثلاث نسخ

    عربي – انجليزي – عربي مع ترجمة

    الشعائر الحسينية حُب وَوَلاء

    نسيج الروح إلى السائح في دمي أبا عبد الله الحسين عليه السلام

    نسيج الروح إلى كربلاء

    حياة حبيب بن مظاهر الأسدي


    مَن أنا؟

    الـمُسلمون الشيعة التأسيس والنشأة

    حياة النفوس

    حلية النفوس

    صناعة الـذات

    القراءة خرائط الأرواح

    الكتابة هيكل الأفكار

    القراءة والكتابة روح العقل

    الأخلاق – تحقيق

    حياة ما بعد الـموت – تحقيق

    قبس من نور الإسلام – تحقيق

    ولا زال سائحا بقلمه يصوغ به فكرا، يورثه الآتي نقيا سائغا

  • علي جمعة الكعود شاعر ورجل قانون سوري فائز بأكثر من ثلاثة عشرة جائزة عربية ودولية صدر له أكثر من عشرة كتب في الشعر ينشر في كبريات الصحف والمجلات العربية

  • عمر الحسيني أديب مصري معاصر نشر له رواية أحلام فترة الموف اون

  • كاتبة جزائرية

    تكتب قصص قصيرة ومقالات وروايات.

  • غادة موسى أديبة مصرية معاصرة من مواليد محافظة دمياط، حاصلة على ليسانس في الشريعة الإسلامية من كلية الدراسات الإسلامية، بدأ الأمر معها بمشاركة الخواطر التي كانت تسري بخلجات نفسها لتعبر عما تضج به قلوب الكثيرين على مدونتها على تطبيق الفيسبوك، وقد صدر لها مؤخراً عن دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع. رواية: " ملاذ غير آمن " وهي أولى مؤلفاتها الأدبية.

  • أديبة مغربية معاصرة

  • فاطمة طايع الزهري كاتبة روائية مصرية من مواليد 2000 من محافظة الأقصر صدر لها أول رواية "حكايات مفتوحة" عام 2022 وكانت الأكثر مبيعاً على موقع iRead ، وصدر لها الرواية الثانية "لعنة ومضة" عام 2023.

  • فكرى عمر عضو اتحاد كتاب مصر. نشر العديد من القصص القصيرة في الجرائد، والمجلات (الأهرام - الأهرام المسائي – الأخبار – القاهرة - أخبار الأدب – الدستور – روزاليوسف - الثقافة الجديدة – ميريت الثقافية – نصف الدنيا – آخر ساعة – إبداع – نزوى العُمانية... وغيرها) الكتب الصادرة: 1- من كلمات الرجل الميت – مجموعة قصصية – سلسلة أدب الجماهير. 2- محاولة التقاط صورة – رواية – سلسلة إبداع الحرية. 3- أنا ظل الآخر – مجموعة قصصية – دار الأدهم للنشر والتوزيع. 4- الزمن الآخر – رواية – المجلس الأعلى للثقافة. 5- الجميلة وفارس الرياح – مجموعة قصصية – الهيئة العامة لقصور الثقافة. 6- تُراب النخل العالى – مجموعة قصصية – الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب. 7- وصايا الريح – رواية – الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب. 8- فُلك النور – رواية – الهيئة العامة لقصور الثقافة. 9- مقهى الشجرة الزرقاء – مجموعة قصصية – الهيئة المصرية العامة للكتاب. 10- عين من زجاج – رواية – دار الفاروق للنشر والتوزيع جوائز: 1- الجائزة الأولى في الرواية من المجلس الأعلى للثقافة 2012م، مسابقة المواهب - دورة إبراهيم أصلان - عن رواية "الزمن الآخر". 2- الجائزة المركزية في الرواية 2019 / 2020م – دورة الروائي فؤاد حجازي - عن رواية "فُلْك النور". 3- جوائز في القصة القصيرة، والقصة القصيرة جدًا من وزارة الشباب 2011م، وصلاح هلال 2011م، وإقليم شرق الدلتا الثقافي، وساقية الصاوي 2012م، ومجلة العربى الكويتية 2017م، و 2018م.  

  • أديب مصري معاصر مقيم بكندا والمدينة المنورة قصة غرناطة هي العمل الروائي المنشور له في عام 2022 عن دار ببلومانيا

  • د. قدرية سعيد أديبة مصرية معاصرة وباحثة في التاريخ المصري  

  • لطفي راجح مسلم، من مواليد قرية تلفيت جنوب نابلس في فلسطين 1990... درس تكنولوجيا المعلومات في جامعة النجاح الوطنية وتخرج بنهاية العام 2013 ويعمل إداريًا في مديرية التربية والتعليم. كتب الشعر منذ نعومة أظفاره عندما كان لا يزال طالبًا، ومنذ ذلك الوقت شارك بالكثير من الأمسيات الشعرية والفعاليات الثقافية والمسابقات على مستوى الوطن فائز بمسابقة مئوية فدوى طوقان. مرشح لجائزة أوسكار المبدعين العرب وحصل على المركز السادس. مرشح لجائزة منف للآداب. شارك في ديوان عباس لغرور الصادر عن دار اوراس للنشر في مصر ينشر عبر صفحته على الفيسبوك " لطفي مسلم" جوال رقم : 00972597359604

  • روائية تونسية معاصرة

  • يكتب أدب القصة والمقال..
    - نشاطات سابقة :  عضو مجلس ادارة وسكرتير تحرير موقع الصحبة نيوز سابقًا، اكتب في مجلة مصر المحروسة ( الهيبة العامة لقصور الثقافة ( جريدة النهار اللبنانية ) .
    مؤلفات : صدر لي كتاب مقالات " دي علامة يامارد ٢٠٢٣ " | شاركت مع مجموعة مؤلفين في إصدارين  ٢٠١٨/٢٠١٩ كتاب بوح الصحبة، كتاب عشوائية الياسمين.

  • محمد جلال أبو رية ولد بمدينة طنطا بقرية صغيرة تسمي بلتاج ، تخرج من كلية الآداب جامعة طنطا قسم اللغة الإنجليزية، عمل ظابط احتياط قسم اللغات بالقوات المسلحة، عمل كمحاضر لغة انجليزية بالمعهد البريطاني الدولي ، عمل كمشرف اداري بسفارة الاتحاد الأوروبي بالزمالك، يعمل كمترجم فوري بشركة استيراد وتصدير بالرياض.

  • محمد رضوان - كبير معلمي الرياضيات، كاتب وإحصائي رياضي مصري في مجال كرة القدم. - ابن مدينة العريش، مواليد مدينة مرسي مطروح. - محرر في موقع كورابيديا لتوثيق وإحصائيات كرة القدم. - حاصل على بكالوريوس علوم وتربية من جامعة قناة السويس 1993. - عضو جمعية قدامي اللاعبين بشمال سيناء.

  • روائي وقاص ومحرر صحفي مصري.

    صدر له "هدية إلهية؛ خادم إبليس؛ بين شقي الرحى" وأعمال أخرى.

  • محمد سعيد بهنسي، مهندس ميكانيكا مصري، و مؤلف كتاب عدو النفس.

  • محمد عبدالرحمن شحاتة، مصر، مواليد 1989، حاصل على بكالريوس تجارة قسم محاسبة. يكتب الرواية والشِّعر الفصيح. صدر له أكوديسفا "رواية"، الموقع الأسود "رواية"، حفرة جهنم "رواية" كيد ساحر "رواية"، ليلة في عَرَقَة "مجموعة قصصية"، السّمنار "مجموعة قصصية"، كارما "سلسلة حلقات الموقع الأسود الإليكترونية-الموسم الأول". كما صدر له خمسة دواوين من الشعر الفصيح. نُشرت له عديد من القصص القصيرة والمقالات والقصائد في عديد من الصحف والمجلّات.. حائز على جائزة الإبداع  عام 2012- المركز الأول.

  • محمد فايز حجازي قاص وروائي مصري، من مواليد حي السيدة زينب بالقاهرة، صدر له ست مجموعات قصصية هي، (الجنة المحترقة)، (سفير إبليس)، (سرقة الإمام)، (نبض الأماكن)، (أزمة قلبية)، (أنتيكات. أسفار عن الفقد والحنين). ورواية (الأقدام السوداء Pieds Noirs). وله قيد النشر (ترزي لكل الأغراض) مجموعة قصصية.

  • أديب وحقوقي مصري معاصر

  • كاتب قصة قصيرة، له مجموعة قصصية بعنوان "الأصبهاني"، شارك في مجموعتين قصصيتين مع كتّاب زملاء "حكايا قلب" و "نسائم أدباء"
    ينشر القصص والخواطر في بعض الصحف الإلكترونية.

  • محمود قرني ، مهندس مصري شاب ، تخرج من كلية الهندسة جامعة القاهرة سنة ٢٠١٤ له عدد من القصص القصيرة والقصائد العامية ، انقطع فترة عن الكتابة حتى عاد بأولى مجموعاته القصصية للنشر ( لو أنَّ لنا كَرَّة ) .

  • أديب وبلوجر مصري معاصر صدر له رواية رجال من التجمع ونساء من بولاق الموسمين الأول والثاني.

  • مهندسة تكتب الرواية والقصة القصيرة والخاطرة، لها رواية "أزمة قلبية".

    ولها عديد من المشاركات الأدبية الأخرى

  • د. مريم فرج الله مواليد 1992 محافظة المنيا حصلت على بكالوريوس العلوم الصيدلانية من جامعة أسيوط عام 2005 كتبت أثناء المراحل التعليمية العديد من الخواطر والأشعار التي نشرتها فيما بعد على صفحتها #سرالهاربه. رواية سر الهاربة هي أول عمل أدبي روائي منشور لها

  • مسينيسه تيبلالي، فنان تشكيلي وكاتب جزائري حاز على لقب اربوست الدولية للفنون التشكيلية مرتين عامي 2016 و 2018 صدر له روايتان، الأولى تلمود نرت عن دار الجزائر تقرأ ودار ببلومانيا ورواية قرطاس الرومي عن دار الجزائر تقرأ.

  • مصطفى صادق الرافعي: أحد أقطاب الأدب العربي الحديث في القرن العشرين، كتب في الشعر والأدب والبلاغة باقتدار، وهو ينتمي إلى مدرسة المحافظين وهي مدرسة شعرية تابعة للشعر الكلاسيكي. وُلِد «مصطفى صادق عبد الرزاق سعيد أحمد عبد القادر الرافعي» بقرية بهتيم بمحافظة القليوبية عام ١٨٨٠م في رحاب أسرةٍ استقى من مَعِينها روافد من العِلمِ والأدبِ؛ فقد زخرت مكتبة والده بنفائس الكتب، كما تشرَّف منزل والده باستضافته لكوكبةٍ من أعلام العلم والأدب، وقد تأثر الرافعي بتلك الكوكبة، واستلهم من نبراس علمهم أُفُقًا جديدًا من آفاق المعرفة، وقد أوفده والده إلى كُتاب القرية؛ فحفظ القرآن الكريم وأتمَّه وهو لم يتجاوز العاشرة من عمره، ثم انتسب إلى مدرسة دمنهور الابتدائية، ومكث بها فترةً من الزمن، انتقل بعدها إلى مدرسة المنصورة الأميرية وحصل منها على الشهادة الابتدائية، وكان عمره آنذاك سبع عشرة سنة، وقد توقف مشواره الأكاديمي عند هذه الدرجة العلمية لِيُماثِلَ بذلك العقاد الذي لم يَنَلْ سوى الشهادة الابتدائية، ومن الجدير بالذكر أن مرض الصمم الذي أصابه هو الذي اضطره إلى ترك التعليم الرسمي، واستعاض عنه بمكتبة أبيه؛ فعكف على قراءة واستيعاب كل ما فيها. وقد تقلَّدَ عددًا من المناصب؛ فعمل كاتبًا في محكمة طلخا، ثم انتقل إلى محكمة إيتاي البارود، ثم محكمة طنطا الشرعية، واختتم حياته المهنية بالانتساب إلى المحكمة الأهلية. وقد أثرى بحر الأدب بالعديد من إبداعاته الشعرية والنثرية؛ فقد أصدر ديوانه الأول عام ١٩٠٣م وهو في ريعان شبابه، وقد حَظِيَ هذا الديوان على إشادة وإعجاب شعراء عصره، فقد أثنى عليه البارودي وحافظ والكاظمي وبعثوا له ببرقيةِ تهنئة؛ ولكن الثناء لم يُثنه عن القرار الذي اتخذه بترك ميدان الشعر والتوجه إلى ساحة النثر الفني الأدبي التي برع فيها، حيث قدم العديد من المؤلفات الأدبية والدينية ومن أشهرها «حديث القمر»، و«أوراق الورد»، و«تحت راية القرآن»، و«إعجاز القرآن والبلاغة النبوية». وقد صعد إلى الرفيق الأعلى عام ١٩٣٧م.

  • مصطفى لطفي المنفلوطي

    مصطفى لطفي المنفلوطي: أديب مصري، ونابغة في الإنشاء والأدب، تفرد بأسلوب أدبي فذ، وصياغة عربية فريدة في غاية الجمال والروعة، تجلت في كافة مقالاته وكتبه، كما نظم الشعر في رقة وعذوبة، ويعتبر العديد من النقاد كتابيه «النظرات» و«العبرات» من أبلغ ما كُتب بالعربية في العصر الحديث. ولد «مصطفى لطفي محمد لطفي محمد المنفلوطي» سنة ١٨٧٦م بمدينة منفلوط إحدى مدن محافظة أسيوط، لأب مصري وأم تركية، عُرفت أسرته بالتقوى والعلم، ونبغ فيها الكثير من القضاة الشرعيون والنقباء على مدار مئتي عام. التحق بكتَّاب القرية، فحفظ القرآن الكريم كله وهو في التاسعة من عمره، ثم أرسله أبوه إلى الجامع الأزهر بالقاهرة فظل يتلقى العلم فيه طوال عشر سنوات، حيث درس علوم العربية والقرآن الكريم والحديث الشريف والتاريخ والفقه، وشيئًا من الأدب العربي الكلاسيكي، وقد وجد في نفسه ميلًا جارفًا نحو الأدب، فأقبل يتزود من كتب التراث في العصر الذهبي، كما طالع كلاسيكيات التراث الضخمة وذات التأثير الجلي في الثقافة العربية والإسلامية مثل كتاب: الأغاني والعقد الفريد، وسواهما من كتب التراث. لم يلبث المنفلوطي، وهو في مقتبل عمره أن اتصل بالشيخ الإمام محمد عبده، فلزم حلقته في الأزهر، واستمع لشروحاته العميقة لآيات القرآن الكريم، ومعاني الإسلام، بعيدًا عن التزمت والخرافات والأباطيل والبدع. وبعد وفاة أستاذه الإمام رجع المنفلوطي إلى بلدته، ومكث عامين متفرغًا لدراسة كتب الأدب القديم، فقرأ للجاحظ، والمتنبي، وأبي العلاء المعري وغيرهم من الأعلام، وكون لنفسه أسلوبًا خاصًّا يعتمد على شعوره وحساسية نفسه. يتحاكى كثير من الناس بعبقريته الإنشائية، حيث كان يتمتع بحسٍّ مرهف، وذوق رفيع، وملكة فريدة في التعبير عن المعنى الإنساني من خلال اللغة، وقد أصقل هذه الموهبة بشغفه المعرفي وتحصيله الأدبي الجاد، فجاءت كتابته رفيعة الأسلوب، أصيلة البيان، فصيحة المعنى، غنية الثقافة، ندر أن نجد لها مثيلًا في الأدب العربي الحديث. وقد صعدت روحه إلى بارئها عام ١٩٢٤م، فكان مثال هذه الروح هو بحق الوردة العطرة التي فنيت، والصخرة الجَلْدة التي بقيت.

  • الاسم :- منتصر ثابت تادرس تاريخ الميلاد :- 17/11/1956 تاريخ تولي الوظيفة :- 2003 الوظيفة الحالية :- رئيس مجلس ادارة مؤسسة الأهرام للتنمية الثقافية الوظيفة السابقة :- مدير عام الثقافة بمحافظة الفيوم – مصر عضو اتحاد الكتاب المصري العنوان :- قصر ثقافة الفيوم – ميدان قارون – الفيوم – مصر الهاتف الجوال :  01113266546   الدرجة العلمية الحاصل عليها :- * درجة الزمالة الدولية في أدب و دراما الطفل – مؤسسة فورد الدولية 2006 * معهد العدالة الاجتماعية – واشنطن 2006 * ماجستير في الدراما الحديثة للطفل Modern Derma For Children 2005 * منحة دارس زائر من جامعة نيويورك 2005 * منحة مؤسسة فورد الدولية في أدب ودراما الطفل 2003 * دبلوم الدراسات العليا في النقد الفني – أكاديمية الفنون 2005 * تمهيدي ماجستير – كلية الآداب جامعة القاهرة 1979 * ليسانس آداب ( قسم عبري ) 1978 جامعة القاهرة * دورات تدريبية في المسرح القومي 82/1983 * دورة في الإدارة المحلية 1992 * أبحاث في المسرح و الدراسات الأكاديمية كلية ماريتا بأوهايو 1994 .   المشاركات الأدبية :- 1-  من يقتل شمشون (مسرحية فى ثلاث فصول) 2- ملك وراقصة (مسرحية) 3- ملك في مملكة النساء (مسرحية) 4ـ بعد أن نام شهريار (مسرحية) 5ـ السندباد يبحث عن وطن (مسرحية) 6ـ أمسيات عائلة هادئة (مجموعة قصصية) 7ـ حمار الحاج قناوي (مجموعة قصصية) 8ـ كلهن امرأة (مجموعة قصصية) 9ـ نهاية زوجة نكدية (مجموعة قصصية) 10ـ الملك والغابة المسحورة (للأطفال) 12ـ مملكة الحمام (للأطفال) 13ـ الجنية والفأس الذهبية (للأطفال) 14ـ مرمر وآلة الزمن (قصة للأطفال) 15ـ رحلات السندباد السبع (سبع مسرحيات للأطفال) 16- إنهم يخطفون شهرزاد (ثلاث مسرحيات) 17- رحلة السندباد (مسرحية من سبعة مشاهد) 18- حبيبي أين أنت (ثلاث مسرحيات من فصل واحد) 19- الفيل وعصا الحكمة (مسرحية للأطفال) 20- خونانوب الفلاح الفصيح (رواية للأطفال) 21- حوريس الملاح الغريق (رواية للأطفال) 22- حورس الصقر المقدس (رواية للأطفال) 23- سنوهيت النبيل الهارب (رواية للأطفال) 24- مقدمة في مسرح الطفل 25- ايزيس ونفتيس  أنشودة البعث والخلود (مسرحيات فرعونية للطفل) 26- المسرح الحديث للطفل 27- أحكي يا شهرزاد (مسرحية في 28- حكايات مرمر (قصص للأطفال) 29- الكتابة الحديثة للطفل 30- قصة الأخوين حدوتة فرعونية   الجوائز :- جائزة سوزان مبارك في أدب الأطفال جائزة المجلس الأعلى للشباب والرياضة في المسرح المركز الأول جائزة المجلس الأعلى للشباب والرياضة عن مجموعة القصص جائزة مؤتمر الفيوم الأدبي في المسرح المركز الأول جائزة هيئة قصور الثقافة في المسرح- المركز الأول جائزة مؤسسة أخبار اليوم أحلي عشر قصص جائزة هيئة قصور الثقافة في أدب الأطفال جائزة المركز القومي للمسرح المركز الأول جائزة المركز القومي للطفل المركز الأول جائزة الهيئة العربية للمسرح – الشارقة -  مسرح الطفل- المركز الأول جائزة مهرجان مسرح الطفل الأول –الهيئة العامة لقصور الثقافة – التأليف المسرحي -  المركز الأول جائزة ناجي نعمان اللبنانية – الأعمال الكاملة

  • قاصة وروائية، نشر لي رواية "أحفاد الخيزران"، عن دار ببلومونيا وبعض القصص الفائزة
    سهام غادرة فائزة بالمركز الأول ( مؤسسة مشكاة نور)، "لستُ محنة" في كتاب (صليل الحروف) ديوان العرب.
    فائزة بجائزة محمود يس للقصة القصيرة، (عملة قديمة) قصة قصيرة حكايا القلب المنتدى، "العنيدة والوحش" نسائم أدباء المنتدى، "أقسى من القتل" العزف الحر الحبر الأسود، تسريح بإحسان" خطيئة الجوع ببلومونيا.

  • مينا بشير راضي، كاتبة شابّة في الثالث و العشرين من عمرِها، تنظُر إلى الحياة على أنها نافِذة كبيرة للوَعي، أو مكتَبة كبيرة. مُغتربة صنعَت من غُربتها كتابها الأول (قلم مُغتَرِب) مُقيمة في كندا و درسَت في جامعة ويسترن الكنَدية، و هي أخصّائية تَغذية و مُسوِّقة و رائدة أعمال طموحة، و ناشِطة ثَقافية و مُقدِّمة البرنامج الأسبوعي(بالعربي الفَصيح) على قناة كنار العربية الكندية على منَصّات التواصل الاجتماعي. مينا هي عُضوة في المركز الثَقافي العربي في كندا، و تكتُب لعدّة صحُف و مجلات معروفة مثل جريدة النهار و الحقيقة و أوروك و العراق الإخبارية و الراي المصرية و مصر اليوم و الجريدة العراقية الأسترالية و الرسالة الكندية.

  • نجيب محفوظ نجيب فرج كاتب و باحث و مترجم   ليسانس أداب قسم أثار يونانى ورومانى 1997 ( جامعة الأسكندرية ) دبلوم الدراسات العليا فى الأرشاد السياحى 2000 ( جامعة الأسكندرية ) دبلوم الدراسات العليا فى الدراسات القبطية 2015 ( جامعة الأسكندرية )   شارك فى ورشة الصحافة فى مركز التكوين الصحفى فى مركزالجيزويت الثقافى بالأسكندرية فى عام 2005 ( الورشة كانت تنظيم جريدة وطنى و جريدة القاهرة و مركز الجيزويت الثقافى ). شارك فى ورشة الصحافة فى المركز الثقافى الفرنسى بالأسكندرية فى عام 2005 شارك فى ورشة الكتابة فى المركز الثقافى الفرنسى بالأسكندرية عام 2007 شارك فى فيلم تسجيلى إنتاج تليفزيون بلجيكا عام 2006.   الوظيفة : كاتب و باحث و مترجم. مؤسس و رئيس تحرير مجلة إلكترونية Alcamag . يعمل في مجال الكتابة و الترجمة الأدبية و الفكرية. صدر له مجموعة كتب عن ( دار ببلومانيا للنشر و التوزيع ) : الجبان و قصص أخرى ( قصص ) ( ترجمة ) ثلاث صفحات من كتاب صياد و قصص أخرى ( قصص ) ( ترجمة ) البشر و الحجر ... قصة البشر يحكيها الحجر ( مقالات ) ( إعداد ) حلم الغريب و قصص أخرى ( قصص ) ( تأليف ) وجوه لا تعرف المستحيل ( الجزء الأول ) ( مقالات : سير و أعلام ) ( إعداد ) هيروديا و قصص أخرى ( قصص ) (ترجمة) مذكرات مجنون  ( رواية ) ( ترجمة ) رواد الأدب و الفلسفة من القرن السابع عشر إلى القرن العشرين  ( مقالات : سير و أعلام ) ( إعداد ) وجوه لا تعرف المستحيل ( الجزء الثاني ) ( مقالات : سير و أعلام ) ( إعداد )

  • نرمين عبد الكريم، كاتبة مصرية وصيدلانية شابة،  مواليد سنة 2000. كتبت العديد من القصص القصيرة التي تم نشرها الكترونيا و على مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، كتبت أول رواية هي "منبه عزرائيل"  في سن التاسعة عشرة من عمرها، و استغرقت في كتابتها ثلاثة أشهر. كان أول ظهور لمنبه عزرائيل على الإطلاق في معرض الكتاب ٢٠٢٣ حيث حققت الرواية الأكثر مبيعا ضمن إصدارات دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع بالمعرض.

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  • ويليام شكسبير وليام كان شاعراً وكاتباً مسرحياً انجليزياً يطلق عليه لقب شاعر انجلترا القومي و"شاعر آفون الملحمي". تتكون أعماله الحية بما في ذلك بعض المشاركات من 38 مسرحية، و154 سوناتا وقصيدتا سرد طويلتان وعدد آخر من القصائد. تمت ترجمة مسرحياته إلى كل اللغات الحية الرئيسية وتتم تأديتهم أكثر بكثير من مؤلفات أي كاتب مسرحي آخر. ولد شكسبير وتربى في سترادفورد - آبون - آفون. وفي سن 18 تزوج من آن هاثاواي والتي أنجبت له ثلاثة أطفال: سوزانا، وتوأمين هامنت وجوديث. وبين عامي 1585م و 1592م بدأ مهنة ناجحة في لندن كممثل وكاتب وجزء من مالك لشركة تمثيل تدعى رجال لورد تشامبرلين والتي عرفت فيما بعد باسم رجال الملك. ويتبين أنه تقاعد وعاد إلى سترادفورد حوالي عام 1613م، حيث توفي بعدها بثلاث سنوات. بقى عدد قليل من سجلات حياة شكسبير الخاصة على قيد الحياة حيث كانت هناك تكهنات عن مسائل المظهر والحياة الجنسية والمعتقدات الدينية وعما إذا كانت الأعمال المنسوبة إليه كانت قد كتبت من قبل آخرين. أنتج شكسبير أغلب أعماله المعروفة بين 1589م و 1613م. حيث كانت مسرحياته الأولى بشكل عام كوميدية وتاريخية وهي أنماط قام برفعها إلى ذروة التعقيد والحبكة الفنية بحلول نهاية القرن السادس عشر. ثم قام بكتابة المآسي بشكل عام حتى قرب 1608م بما في ذلك هاملت والملك لير وماكبث والذين يعدون من أفضل الأعمال باللغة الإنكليزية. وفي مرحلته الأخيرة قام بكتابة الكوميديات التراجيدية المعروفة أيضاً باسم الرومانسيات، وتعاون مع كتاب مسرحيون آخرون. صدرت العديد من مسرحياته في طبعات مختلفة الجودة والدقة خلال حياته. في عام 1623م قام اثنان من زملاؤه السابقين بالمسرح بنشر الورقة الأولى له، وهي طبعة تم جمعها لأعماله الدرامية والتي شملتهم جميعاً عدا اثنين من المسرحيات اللتين عرف الآن أنهما لشكسبير. كان شكسبير شاعرا وكاتبا مسرحيا محترما على أيامه ولكن لم تنهض سمعته لارتفاعها الحالي حتى القرن التاسع عشر. حيث شهد الرومانسيون على وجه الخصوص بعبقرية شكسبير كما عبد الفيكتوريون شكسبير عبادة الأبطال وبتبجيل وصل أن جورج برنارد شو قال أنه "صنم الشعراء الملحميين". في القرن العشرين كانت أعماله قد اعتمدت مرارا وأعيد اكتشافها من قبل الحركات الجديدة في التدريس والأداء. ولا تزال مسرحياته تتمتع بشعبية كبيرة حتى اليوم وتتم بشكل مستمر دراستها، وأدائها إعادة تفسيرها في مختلف السياقات الثقافية والسياسية في جميع أنحاء العالم.

  •   رقم الهاتف : 01143471550 المهنة : مهندس مدني. العنوان : محافظة القاهرة، مدينة نصر، الحي العاشر   Email : [email protected] Facebook : Yahia El Gebally

      الأعمال المنشورة :   ورقيا :  
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    • رعب بالحجم العائلي رواية نشرت مع دار ببلومانيا للنشر والتوزيع في معرض القاهرة الدولي 2021 ووصلت الطبعة الثانية منها
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    • أرواح محرومة نوفيلا تم التعاقد على نشرها على موقع عصير الكتب للنشر الالكتروني وتم نشرها على الموقع في 2021.
      بالإضافة لمقالات علمية ثقافية تاريخية متنوعة تنشر يوميا على الحساب الشخصي على موقع فيس بوك نجحت في جذب جمهور عريض وتكوين قاعدة جماهرية تجاوزت ال 40 ألف متابع. ونشر بعض المقالات على أكثر من موقع إلكتروني.